Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"H" Keywords - 74 Result(s)

H

 H

[Haptic interface]

Robot Technology for Achieving Secure Society

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Features
Tadokoro Laboratory developed ‘Active Scope Camera,' a world-unique rescue robot that can search deep in rubble piles of collapsed structures through a gap of a few cm wide. It also developed ‘Quince,' a world-unique unmanned ground vehicle that could survey the second to fifth floors of Nuclear Reactor Buildings of Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Its technologies was applied industries, including unmanned transfer vehicle for outdoors under ice and snow environment being actually used in a factory of Toyota Motor East Japan, and ‘Robo-Scope' for debris inspection in collaboration with Shimizu Corporation.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
We have a policy of education through and research for solution to actual problems. Current nearly ten collaborative researches focuses on outdoor investigation, infrastructure/plant inspection, and remote/autonomous task execution by robots.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
TADOKORO, Satoshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Hard coating]

High-Speed, Low-Temperature Deposition of Hard Ceramics Coating

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Features
Metal processing requires high-speed and dry cutting to improve productivity and reduce costs. The surface of cutting tools is generally coated by a hard, wear-resistant materials, such as Ti(C,N) and Al2 O3 . Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been widely used for preparing hard coatings; however, recent demand is developing a technique for high-speed and low-temperature deposition in order to enhance the cutting performance. We have introduced lasers into CVD process to enhance chemical reaction and have successfully prepared α-Al2 O3 films at low deposition temperature and high deposition rate. Orientations of α-Al2 O3 films were controlled by changing deposition conditions.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
We have demonstrated that laser CVD can prepare not only Al2 O3 but also other engineering ceramics, such as Y2 O3 -ZrO2 , Y2 O3 -SiO2 and SiC with significant orientation growth and high deposition rate. Laser CVD can develop a new premium for protective coating on tools and high-temperature structural materials.

Institute for Materials Research
GOTO, Takashi, Professor

[Hardware Algorithms]

Cyber Physical Systems Security and Its Applications

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Features
Our study focuses on information security technologies for the next-generation ICT society fusing real-world and cyber-space computing. We are now conducting the research and development of ultra-high-speed, ultra-low power LSI computing to perform security functions such as encryption and error-correcting codes, secure implementation technologies to protect systems from various physical attacks (attacks carried out by physical access to the system), and security optimization technologies tailored to the system usage environment (the information environment and electromagnetic environment).

Targeted Applications / Industry

We can provide collaboration and information exchange services in the fields of information security. In particular, We have experiences of domestic/international collaborative researches on embedded security with some companies, universities, and governmental institutes.

Research Institute of Electrical Communication
HOMMA, Naofumi, Professor Ph.D Info. Sci.

[Hardware Security]

Cyber Physical Systems Security and Its Applications

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Features
Our study focuses on information security technologies for the next-generation ICT society fusing real-world and cyber-space computing. We are now conducting the research and development of ultra-high-speed, ultra-low power LSI computing to perform security functions such as encryption and error-correcting codes, secure implementation technologies to protect systems from various physical attacks (attacks carried out by physical access to the system), and security optimization technologies tailored to the system usage environment (the information environment and electromagnetic environment).

Targeted Applications / Industry

We can provide collaboration and information exchange services in the fields of information security. In particular, We have experiences of domestic/international collaborative researches on embedded security with some companies, universities, and governmental institutes.

Research Institute of Electrical Communication
HOMMA, Naofumi, Professor Ph.D Info. Sci.

[Healthcare]

Minimally Invasive Medical Devices and Healthcare Devices Using Micro/Nano Machining Technology

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Features
Medical devices and healthcare devices which have several functions with small size have been developed using precise micromachining technology and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technology. More precise and safe diagnostics and therapy, as well as novel diagnostics and treatment can be realized by developing high-functionalized endoscopes and catheters and developing novel medical devices. Healthcare without restriction of location and time is aimed by developing thin, light and high-functionalized new healthcare devices.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Besides of basic research, we are working in cooperation with clinicians and medical device companies for practical use. We founded a university-launched venture company for bridge-building between university and company and collaborative researches have been performed.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
HAGA, Yoichi, Professor Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Engineering

Development of Biomedical Micro/Nano Integrated System Using LSI Technology

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Features
Semiconductor neural engineering is a discipline that uses semiconductor process/device/circuit technologies to further understand properties of neural systems and to create novel fusion systems of living body and machine.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
One of the goals in this laboratory is to establish semiconductor neural engineering and develop biomedical micro/nano integrated systems.
Another goal is to educate the next generation of leaders in biomedical engineering through research including:
1. Intelligent Si neural probe and biomedical signal processing LSI
2. Fully-implantable retinal prosthesis system
3. Bio/nano technology and novel Bio-FET sensor
4. 3-dimensional integration technology and analog/digital LSI design

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
TANAKA, Tetsu, Professor Ph.D. (Engineering)

[Healthy Aging]

Smart Ageing Initiative

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Features
In Japan, the percentage of elderly people aged 65 years or over was 23.1% in 2010. It is no doubt that Japan is the world's first super-aging society. In such a super-aging environment, it is necessary to form a society in which each individual can play an active role even as one becomes older in order to maintain and improve the quality of life of all people and to maintain a healthy society. In advanced brain science, research from the fields of brain function imaging, cognitive science, and psychology has been utilized with the aim of realizing a healthy aging society. Up to date information on various new technologies and related discoveries has been disseminated so that individuals can live a healthy life with peace of mind at every stage of aging, while maintaining and improving the health of their brain and mind in a diverse and complex society.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
We believe to overcome super-aging environments is not only an object of public concern but also big business chances to create new industries.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
KAWASHIMA, Ryuta, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[Heart Wall]

Noninvasive Ultrasonic Measurement of Dynamic Properties of Heart and Arteries

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Features
Complexity of the cardiac contraction sequence is still not fully understood because the dynamic mechanical excitation process, which directly correlates with contraction, cannot be accurately measured by CT, MRI, SPECT, or conventional ultrasound. By developing a noninvasive novel imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions (US patent 5840028), we have detected the minute mechanical response (velocity component) to the propagation of the action potential in the human heart or to detect the propagation of the vibrations along the heart wall caused by the valve closure (Fig. 2).
By applying the same procedure to the human arteries, the regional change in wall thickness caused during one cardiac cycle can be measured with high spatial resolution (Fig. 1). From the measurement, the regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque can be determined. By comparing the pathological findings with the distribution of elasticity, elasticity of lipid and that of fibrous tissue were determined. Thus, each point inside the plaque is classified into lipid or fibrous tissue using transcutaneous ultrasound (Fig. 3).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
This novel method offers potential as a diagnostic technique for detection of plaque vulnerability with high spatial resolution.
We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
KANAI, Hiroshi, Professor PhD

[Heat Transfer]

Molecular Dynamics Analysis of Coating and Surface Modification

Molecular-scale mechanism of solid-liquid affinity, wettability, thermal boundary resistance and molecular deposition are analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations toward its control. With a background of heat and mass transport and interfacial thermodynamics, transport phenomena of various scales ranging from spin coating of photoresist to SAM (self-assembled monolayer) and hydrophobic/hydrophilic treatment by attaching some molecular basis are studied. Futhermore, the molecular-scale mechanisms which determine thermophysical properties and the molecular structure that realizes desired thermophysical properties are studied. We can conduct effective collaboration and provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Institute of Fluid Science
OHARA, Taku, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Heusler alloy]

Development of High Sensitive Magnetic Sensor Operating at Room Temperature with Tunnel Magnetoresistance Devices

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Features
Recently, many tunnel magnetoresistance devices with high magnetoresistance effect are reported. These are expected to be applied to high sensitive magnetic sensors. There are many magnetic sensors with variety of the mechanism, in order to meet the demand of the very wide range of sensing magnetic field. However, there is no magnetic sensor which has high sensitivity, easy to use, operation at room temperature and low cost. Only a magnetic sensor with tunnel magnetoresistance devices can satisfy all the demand in principle. As the device has very wide range of the sensing magnetic field, it can be designed for any demand to the sensors.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
For example, this device can sense a bio-magnetic field easily at room temperature, so that it could be replaced SQUID device, which is popular now but is very expensive and not easy to use personally. Therefore, by using this device, we expect we can conduct effective collaborative research in medical field.

Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering
ANDO, Yasuo, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[HGF]

Development of a Novel Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)

Features
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by systematic motor neuron degeneration. Approximately 20% cases of familial ALS are caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. We developed transgenic rats that express a human SOD1 gene with two different ALS-linked mutations (G93A or H46R) showing progressive motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. The larger size of the rat ALS models as compared with existing mouse models will facilitate studies on neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative strategy involving manipulations of cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is one of the most potent survival-promoting factors for motor neurons. Continuous intrathecal infusion of human recombinant HGF (hrHGF) attenuated loss of spinal motor neurons, astrocytosis, and microglial activation, leading to prolonged survival in the ALS rats. Safety and toxicology testing of the hrHGF protein in non-human primates should prompt further clinical trials in human ALS patients.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine
AOKI, Masashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

 h

[health]

Development of Wearable Motion Measurement System for Motor Rehabilitation and Healthcare

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Features
In order to realize wealthy and vibrant local communities, it is desired that people in the community are healthy. However, the amount of the daily activity decreases as they get older, which increases the risks of the fall by weakened lower limb muscles and of the cerebrovascular disease, and so on. Therefore, for the elderly people, there is increased need of the walking training and the movement assistance in daily life, and of the rehabilitation aid.
In this study, focusing on the motor function of the lower limbs that is important for independent activities of daily living and that relates to the health maintenance, development of assistive technologies for decreased gait ability or for dysfunction of lower limbs are performed based on the technologies of electronics and signal processing. Especially, the wearable sensor system using gyroscopes and accelerometers are developed to measure kinetic information, and then the evaluation system for the gait ability and the lower limbs motor function is developed in this study.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
The goal of this study is to realize simple and convenient measurement and accumulation of various information of gait, to visualize the obtained data for determination of training effect and evaluation of motor function, and to provide appropriate training program for each subject.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
WATANABE, Takashi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[health sciences]

Functional and Molecular Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

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Features
Using positron emission tomography (PET), we can measure the regional metabolism, perfusion and signal transmission between neurotransmitters and receptors in various organ systems of living humans and animals, such as the brain and heart. Recent technical developments have shown that the mind, or at least some parts of it, can be demonstrated by "imaging".

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Our group has had considerable achievements in clinical research on drug effects and side effects, elucidation of underlying mechanism of alternative and complementary therapies, as well as exercise physiology.

Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center
TASHIRO, Manabu, Professor doctor of medical sciences

[healthy life]

The Novel Ultrasound Irradiation Device

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Features
Dr. Katsunori Nonogaki has developed the novel ultrasound irradiation device, which can improve the autonomic nervous system activity and peripheral circulation. In addition, the ultrasoud device can improve hypertension and hyperglycemia within 20 min in subjects with drug-resistant hypertension and diabetes. Our initial device was approved in Japan (226AIBZX00028000). This device will be avaliable for the treatment of 1) muscle pain, 2) the autonomic neural dysfunction and stress-related disorders, 3) hypertention, and 4) diabetes. Moreover, the device will be usefull for your healthy life and aging care.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Our aims are to export the device internationally. We seek the investment and international business partners.

Department of Diabetes Technology, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
NONOGAKI, Katsunori, Professor MD, PhD

[heart rate variability]

Quantitative Evaluation of the Baroreflex Sensitivity of the Heart and Artery

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Features
Metabolic syndrome is an important view point, when we consider the preventive medicine. Hypertension is one of the most important points to prevent the cardiovascular events. However, there is no method to measure the baroreflex sensitivity of the artery in the patients with hypertension. Tohoku University had invented the new method to evaluate the baroreflex sensitivity of the heart and artery (JP Patent No.4789203).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
By the use of this machine, the baroreflex sensitivity of an artery in the patients can easily be measured noninvasively. It enables to predict the occurrence of hypertension and evaluate the therapy of hypertension easily, while allowing prevention of the cardiovascular events.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
YAMBE, Tomoyuki, Professor

[heatresistant material]

Precipitation Hardened Co-based Alloy

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The high-temperature strength in Co-based alloys is inferior to that in Ni-based superalloys due to no available ’ phase for strengthening Co-based alloys. We have found a new intermetallic compound Co3(Al,W) ’ phase, and /’ Co-Al-W-based wrought and cast alloys show excellent high-temperature strength. The /’ Ir-Al-W-based alloys are also available for high-temperature uses at over 1100 °C. The Co-based alloys also have good wear resistance. For example, friction stir welding (FSW) of high-softening-temperature materials such as steels and titanium alloys is possible using a Co-based alloy tool. We hope to conduct collaborative research with willing company for a practical application of the Co- or Ir-based alloys for high-temperature uses including FSW applications.

Department of Metallurgy, Graduate School of Engineering
OMORI, Toshihiro, Associate Professor Ph.D.

[hemiplegia]

Mechanism of Restoration and Rehabilitative Treatment of Movement Disorders

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Features
Our investigation aims to develop rehabilitative treatment for movement disorders due to brain damage using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). TMS, eddy current stimulation, and tDCS (1-5 mA, 10 minutes) both can modulate excitability of the cerebral cortex, and are applicable for restoration of limb paresis. We focus on modulating body scheme to induce appropriate adaptive changes of the central nervous system using NIBS.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Our goal is to develop therapeutic systems for movement disorders in which NIBS devices are combined with robotics or sensors. We would like to collaborate with companies for developing, manufacturing, and selling innovative medical devices.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
IZUMI, Shin-ichi, Professor PhD

[hepatocyte growth factor]

Development of a Novel Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)

Features
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by systematic motor neuron degeneration. Approximately 20% cases of familial ALS are caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. We developed transgenic rats that express a human SOD1 gene with two different ALS-linked mutations (G93A or H46R) showing progressive motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. The larger size of the rat ALS models as compared with existing mouse models will facilitate studies on neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative strategy involving manipulations of cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is one of the most potent survival-promoting factors for motor neurons. Continuous intrathecal infusion of human recombinant HGF (hrHGF) attenuated loss of spinal motor neurons, astrocytosis, and microglial activation, leading to prolonged survival in the ALS rats. Safety and toxicology testing of the hrHGF protein in non-human primates should prompt further clinical trials in human ALS patients.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine
AOKI, Masashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[hereditary includion body myopathy (hIBM)]

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),Muscular dystrophy,Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV)/ hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM)

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Distal myopathy with rimmed vaculoles (DMRV) / hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by the preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior muscle. It is known that the disease gene underlying DMRV is GNE, encoding glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2- epimerase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase, two essential enzymes in sialic acid biosynthesis. Decreased sialic acid production causes muscle degeneration. Muscle atrophy and weakness are completely prevented in a mouse model of DMRV after treatment with sialic acid metabolites orally.
The aim of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetics and safety of N-acetylneuraminic acid (figure) in patients with DMRV. N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid in serum and urine are measured before and after oral administration of N-acetylneuraminic acid. We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine
AOKI, Masashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[heterologous protein]

Development of Production System of Valuable Proteins Using a Koji-Mold, Aspergillus Oryzae, as a Host

Features
Because a koji-mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has an ability to secret a higher amount of proteins and is regarded as a safe microorganism, it has been expected as a promising host for production of useful proteins derived from plants and animals. However, Aspergillus oryzae produces various proteolytic enzymes that could degrade heterologous proteins produced, and hence we constructed mutant strains in which a transcription factor gene involved in proteolytic enzyme production was disrupted. In addition, codon optimization of heterologous gene resulted in a significant increase in the stability of heterologous gene transcripts. These attempts would lead to an increase in the amount of valuable proteins produced.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
The technology could be applied to the high-level production of pharmaceutical proteins and industrially useful enzymes. We look forward to developing the collaborative project with enzyme and pharmaceutical industries.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
GOMI, Katsuya, Professor PhD