Tohoku University. Research Profiles

LANGUAGE
  • Top
  • Researchers

Researchers 283 Result(s), Themes 315 Result(s)

A

 A

Monomer-Recycle System of Biodegradable Plastics by Industrial Fungal Fermentation and Application of Fungal Biosurfactant Proteins to Nanoparticles for Medical Use

NEXT
PREV

Features
In Japan, solid-phase fungal fermentation systems using the industrial fungus Aspergillus oryzae have been extensively used for producing fermented foods such as soy sauce and sake; the annual production volume of the products is over one million tons. The efficient enzymatic hydrolyzing systems are expected to be applicable to biological recycling of biodegradable plastics. We found that A. oryzae can effectively degrade polybutylene succinate-coadipate (PBSA) by the combination with an esterase (cutinase) CutL1 and novel surfactant proteins, RolA and HsbA that are attached to the surface of PBSA and then recruit CutL1. The recruitment of Cutl1 by the surfactants stimulated PBSA degradation.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
The fungal biosurfactant protein is applicable to industrial recycling of biodegradable plastics and to production of immune-response free nano-particles for medical use.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
ABE, Keietsu, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

Drug Delivery System for Retinal Protection

NEXT
PREV

Features
Intravitreal injection of some drugs to treat retinal diseases has been successfully reported. However, there is a possibility of severe side effects, such as infection. So we have developed a transscleral drug delivery system by using non-biodegradable device, which enabled sustained drug delivery to the retina. Because of the nature of the device, we can deliver the multi-drug independently. We have performed our work in collaboration with Department of Bioengineering and Robotics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Using this drug delivery device, we may be able to apply our system not only to the retinal diseases but also to other diseases.
For clinical application, we hope the collaboration with companies and organizations from the points of materials and original drug delivery to the focal regions.

Division of Clinical Cell Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine
ABE, Toshiaki, Professor MD

Supercritical Hydrothermal Synthesis of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles

NEXT
PREV

Features
We invented supercritical hydrothermal synthesis method for the synthesis of organic modified nanoparticles (NPs). Under the supercritical state, the organic molecules and metal salt aqueous solutions are miscible and water molecule works as an acid/base catalyst for the reactions. Organic-inorganic conjugate NPs can be synthesized under this condition. This hybrid NPs show high affinity with the organic solvent or the polymer matrix, which leads to fabricate the organic inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with the trade-off function (super hybird nanomaterials). These hybrid materials of polymer and ceramics fabricated with NPs achieve both high thermal conductivity and easy thin film flexible fabrication, namely trade-off function.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
For example, by the surface modification of BN particles by supercritical method, affinity of BN and polymers could be improved, so that high BN content of hybrid materials, thus high thermal conductivity materials, could be synthesized. Also by dispersing high refractive index NPs like TiO2 or ZrO2 into polymers transparently, we can tune the refractive index of the polymers. CeO2 nanoparticles are expected to be used for high performance catalysts. To transfer those supercritical fluid nano technologies, a consortium was launched with more than 70 companies.

Advanced Institute for Materials Research
ADSCHIRI, Tadafumi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Development of a reaction process in supercritical water

NEXT
PREV

Features
We are developing a new continuous flow type process for supercritical reactions. Under the supercritical state, the organic molecules and metal salt aqueous solutions are miscible and water molecule works as an acid/base catalyst which leads to rapid reactions. In order to apply such new reaction fields to an industrial process, it is necessary to establish the process design basis by understanding phenomena in the reaction fields, on the basis of phase equilibrium, flux and reaction kinetics theory. So while developing a process, we are doing research for the establishment of the process design basis.

Targeted Application(s) / Industry
Examples are a process for the synthesis of organic modified nanoparticles (MPs), a process for the pretreatment and solubilization of biomass in the supercritical/subcritical water and a process for the refinery of heavy oil in the supercritical water.

Advanced Institute for Materials Research
ADSCHIRI, Tadafumi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials

NEXT
PREV

Features
Hybrid materials that show multi-functions of polymer and nanoparticles are expected to be used in future industries, and thus many research and development have been actively conducted. However, since the affinity of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles is very low, in most of the cases, properties of different materials are incompatible in the hybrid materials. To create the hybrid materials with incompatible multi-functions has been considered a difficult task.
However, by using supercritical fluid technology, we have succeeded in making hybrid materials with incompatible multi-functions.

Targeted Application(s) / Industry
Now, variety of hybrid materials are being developed, including
・Transparent, flexible, high reflective index, and high fabricability,
・Flexible, high heat conductivity, low electric resistivity, and high fabricability.

Advanced Institute for Materials Research
ADSCHIRI, Tadafumi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Hydrogen embrittlement of high strength steels

NEXT
PREV

1) Features
We are studying hydrogen embrittlement property of high strength steels from the aspects of both the effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of high strength steels and hydrogen uptake behavior in corrosive environments. The topics of our study includes clarification of mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement of various steels, investigation of hydrogen entry caused by corrosion using electrochemical techniques, hydrogen visualization, proposing evaluation methods for hydrogen embrittlement property and so forth.

2) Targeted Applications / Industry
Collaborative research in the field of hydrogen embrittlement, for example, hydrogen embrittlement properties of high strength steels and the effects of metallographic structure and hydrogen traps, proposal of evaluation methods for hydrogen embrittlement property for some specific steel and for parts with specific shape, development of novel hydrogen visualization techniques.

Institute for Materials Research
AKIYAMA, Eiji, Professor Doctor of Science

Synthesis and material characterization of new organic ferroelectric materials, molecular semiconductors, molecular magnets.

NEXT
PREV

Multifunctional molecular-assemblies and hybrid organic - inorganic materials are examined from the viewpoint of structural freedom of organic molecules. The spin and electronic states of molecular-assemblies are designed in terms of electrical conductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity. Diverse molecular assemblies from single crystal, plastic crystal, liquid crystal, gel, to Langmuir-Blodgett film are our research targets, which were hybridized with inorganic gigantic clusters and metal nanoparticles. We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.


Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
AKUTAGAWA, Tomoyuki, Professor Doctor of Science

Development of High Sensitive Magnetic Sensor Operating at Room Temperature with Tunnel Magnetoresistance Devices

NEXT
PREV

Features
Recently, many tunnel magnetoresistance devices with high magnetoresistance effect are reported. These are expected to be applied to high sensitive magnetic sensors. There are many magnetic sensors with variety of the mechanism, in order to meet the demand of the very wide range of sensing magnetic field. However, there is no magnetic sensor which has high sensitivity, easy to use, operation at room temperature and low cost. Only a magnetic sensor with tunnel magnetoresistance devices can satisfy all the demand in principle. As the device has very wide range of the sensing magnetic field, it can be designed for any demand to the sensors.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
For example, this device can sense a bio-magnetic field easily at room temperature, so that it could be replaced SQUID device, which is popular now but is very expensive and not easy to use personally. Therefore, by using this device, we expect we can conduct effective collaborative research in medical field.

Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering
ANDO, Yasuo, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Development of Innovative Casting Technology

NEXT
PREV

Features
In casting process, molten metal is poured into a mold and solidified for making complex shaped metallic product that is used in a variety field of industries. Major research field of my research laboratory is the innovative casting technology, that is, the research on computer simulation technology for prediction of typical casting defects (shrinkage, segregation and so on), and the semi-sold die casting process for light metals. Applications of the casting technology are based on the needs from the industries. Not only hardware technology but also software technology are fully used for the establishment of the cutting edge casting technology.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Followings are targeted applications of co-operative research with industries.
1.Casting CAE(Computer Aided Engineering)system (Fig.1)
2.Quick, simple and easy semi-solid metallic slurry making method (Fig. 2)
3.Macro-segregation simulation technology (Fig.3)
4.Advanced casting CAE technology based on particle method

Graduate School of Engineering
ANZAI, Koichi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Development of a Novel Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)

Features
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by systematic motor neuron degeneration. Approximately 20% cases of familial ALS are caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. We developed transgenic rats that express a human SOD1 gene with two different ALS-linked mutations (G93A or H46R) showing progressive motor neuron degeneration and paralysis. The larger size of the rat ALS models as compared with existing mouse models will facilitate studies on neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative strategy involving manipulations of cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is one of the most potent survival-promoting factors for motor neurons. Continuous intrathecal infusion of human recombinant HGF (hrHGF) attenuated loss of spinal motor neurons, astrocytosis, and microglial activation, leading to prolonged survival in the ALS rats. Safety and toxicology testing of the hrHGF protein in non-human primates should prompt further clinical trials in human ALS patients.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine
AOKI, Masashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),Muscular dystrophy,Distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV)/ hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM)

NEXT
PREV

Distal myopathy with rimmed vaculoles (DMRV) / hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by the preferential involvement of the tibialis anterior muscle. It is known that the disease gene underlying DMRV is GNE, encoding glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2- epimerase and N-acetylmannosamine kinase, two essential enzymes in sialic acid biosynthesis. Decreased sialic acid production causes muscle degeneration. Muscle atrophy and weakness are completely prevented in a mouse model of DMRV after treatment with sialic acid metabolites orally.
The aim of this study is to investigate pharmacokinetics and safety of N-acetylneuraminic acid (figure) in patients with DMRV. N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid in serum and urine are measured before and after oral administration of N-acetylneuraminic acid. We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine
AOKI, Masashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

Visual Computing with Secure ICT in the Big Data Era

NEXT
PREV

Features

Our study focuses on sensing, processing, recognition, understanding, and analysis of enormous visual data collected in real-world environments. We have invented a set of advanced techniques of sub-pixel image analysis using phase-based image matching. Potential applications include personal recognition using various biometric traits (e.g., face, fingerprint, palm print, finger knuckle print, iris, and medical radiographs), machine vision, multi-view 3D reconstruction, image database search, and medical image computing. We are also studying fundamental techniques for building secure ICT infrastructure for the big data era; our research interests include tamper-resistant cryptographic processing and biometrics-based secure remote authentication.


Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We can provide collaboration and information exchange services for industries and other research organizations in the fields of image processing, computer vision, information security, biometrics, LSI design, and embedded system technologies. Many researchers and engineers from various companies, universities, and research institutions have visited our laboratory regardless of their technology fields. Our staff at the Intelligent Information System (IIS) Research Center will welcome potential collaborators: info@iisrc.ecei.tohoku.ac.jp

Graduate School of Information Sciences
AOKI, Takafumi, Professor

Creation, Understanding and Distribution Technologies for Next-generation CGM/UGC content

NEXT
PREV

Our lab is tackling the research on innovative intellectual processing methods for digital content, especially CGM/UGC (Consumer Generated Media / User Generated Content). We focus especially on “digital content creation technologies”, “digital content understanding technologies” and “digital content distribution technologies”. Concrete research topics in “digital content creation technologies” are : automatic system for 3DCG animation creation by scenario input (fig.1), automatic skeleton creation method for 3DCG models, automatic cloth-fitting room(fig.2) and display system for floating 3D images (fig.3) etc. Research topics in “digital content understanding technologies” are: automatic video metadata generation technology for video retrieval, high-performance light source detection for photo/CG synthesis, image matching technology with distance-free concept etc. And research topics in “digital content distribution technologies” are: cyclic broadcasting methods for Internet videos, automatic objectionable content detection (especially for pornographic videos) and Web security etc. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe)
AOKI, Terumasa, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering

Biomarker Development and Preemptive Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease

NEXT
PREV

Features
Over the past 20 years, our understanding of molecular pathology of dementia and AD has dramatically deepened, and new biomarkers including amyloid PET and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid42/tau as well as therapeutic strategies have been developed. However, clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs in mild to moderate AD were unsuccessful or were halted due to serious adverse drug effects.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
These results strongly suggest that disease-modifying therapies should be started much earlier before a widespread neuron death will occur. We hope that early detection and prevention with preemptive therapy may lead to a success of fighting AD.

Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
ARAI, Hiroyuki, Professor MD, PhD

New High-Throughput, High Resolution DNA Methylation Analysis Method, PCR-Luminex for the Diagnosis of Genomic Imprinting Disorders in ART Babies

NEXT
PREV

Features
The parent-of–origin specific expression of the imprinted genes relies on DNA methylation acquired during gametogenesis. Recent studies indicate the possibility of excess imprinting disease occurrence in babies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PCR-Luminex method is powerful tool for the methylation analyses, suitable for the use at the clinical diagnosis level because of taking much time and multistep procedures.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
We have developed a new high-throughput, high resolution DNA methylation analysis method. PCT international patent was performed.

Environment and Genome Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine
ARIMA, Takahiro, Professor Medical Doctor

Development of Grass-field Shorthorn Cattle and it's Innocative Green-Technology for Sustainable and Improving Beef Production

NEXT
PREV

Grass-field Shorthorn Cattle(trademark registration No. 5270386 Fig.1)that possess a loss of functional myostatin result in the double-muscled phenotype with generalized hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the muscle. The cattle were developed form Japanese Shorthorn Cattle, and have superior carcass characteristics including a larger proportion of muscle (about 50% more muscle mass than normal-muscled cattle), lower proportions of fat and more tender meat (Fig. 2). The increased lean beef production shows that Grass-field Shorthorn Cattle are estimated to be a hopeful breed as meat cattle in days to come. Therefore, we are studying the further development of Grass-field Shorthorn Cattle and it’s whole mechanisms of increased muscle muss (Fig.3) as a new breed to reduce the environmental loading on beef production. The goal of our research is to establish innovative Green-Technology for sustainable and improving beef production of GSC and to utilize them for practical use.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
ASO, Hisashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

A tomato with a high serotonin content a day keeps the doctor away

NEXT
PREV

Features
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) has two independent systems, one in the brain and the other in the periphery. As the highest serotonin levels were found in cherry tomato in 38 fruits and vegetables in Japan. Peripheral serotonin plays important roles in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism through the increasing of bile acids concentration in circulation. The intraperitoneal injection of serotonin to mice inhibits weight gain, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and completely prevented the enlargement of intra-abdominal adipocytes when on a high fat diet, but not on a chow diet. This novel metabolic effect of peripheral serotonin is critically related to a shift in the profile of muscle fiber type from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative in soleus muscle.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
The foods with a high serotonin content may represent excellent dietary sources of serotonin, and serotonin action may well offer new drug strategies for developing therapeutic drugs for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
ASO, Hisashi, Professor Doctor of Medicine

 B

Understanding and application of thermoacoustic phenomena

NEXT
PREV

Features
Acoustic oscillations of a gas column in narrow flow channels can lead to various thermal phenomena such as production and amplification of acoustic power from heat and generation of low temperatures. We aim at understanding these thermoacoustic phenomena from experimental point of view, and developing heat engines that can operate without any moving parts like solid pistons.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
Acoustic prime mover can use various heat sources like industrial waste heat and sunlight. Acoustic cooler is a Helium-gas based heat pump that needs no Freon gases as a coolant.

Graduate School of Engineering
BIWA, Tetsushi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

 C

Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Parts with Electron Beam Melting (EBM)

NEXT
PREV

Features
Electron beam melting (EBM) is a type of additive manufacturing technologies. EBM uses electron beam as an energy source to melt metal powder and produce metal thin layers. This sequence is repeated in a layer-by-layer manner to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) components.
This technology can produce any kinds of structures based on 3D CAD models and is suitable for custom-made manufacturing.
In addition, our recent studies revealed that the unique microstructure, such as directional solidification and uniform dispersions of fine precipitates, are obtained by EBM; this technology is useful to realize advanced materials that cannot be obtained conventional manufacturing.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry
The EBM technology has received much attention for producing metal parts used in biomedical, aerospace and automotive industries.
Rapid prototyping / rapid tooling is one of the applications of this technology.

Institute for Materials Reserach
CHIBA, Akihiko, Professor PhD

 D

Induction of Schwann cells from human mesenchymal stem cells and their application to spinal cord injury and demyelinating diseases

NEXT
PREV

Bone marrow stromal cells have great advantages since they are already applied to patients either by auto- or allo-transplantations, can be harvested in large numbers (10 million cells within several weeks) as adherent cells from bone marrow aspirates, and are with low risk of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, marrow bank is available. Likewise, mesenchymal cells harvested from umbilical cord are also easily accessible from cord bank and are a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. We have established a system to induce functional Schwann cells (peripheral glia) from human bone marrow stromal cells and umbilical cord mesenchymal cells by treating cells with a series of reagents and cytokines. This induction system successfully generates Schwann cells with very high efficiency (~97%). They were confirmed to elicit neural regeneration in peripheral nerve damages and spinal cord injury (Eur, J. Neurosci, 2001; J. Neurosurg, 2004, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol, 2005, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007; Tissue Eng., 2011). The efficiency and safety of induced Schwann cells were demonstrated in monkey by 1 year follow up (Exp. Neurol., 2010). Importantly, induced cells not only elicited neural regeneration in both peripheral and central nervous system, but also contributed to functional recovery by restoring myelin and saltatory conduction. Therefore, these cells are expected to be effective to demyelinating diseases as well. We hope to collaborate with companies and research groups who are willing to utilize our system.

Graduate School of Medicine
DEZAWA, Mari, Professor Doctor of Medicine