Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"B" Keywords - 81 Result(s)

B

 B

[BABHY]

Development of the method of Baby Borehole Hydraulic Fracturing, BABHY

Features

For the effective measurement of the reopening pressure in hydraulic fracturing, it is necessary to use the testing equipment with sufficiently small compliance. This limitation makes it difficult to apply the hydraulic fracturing for the measurement of the maximum stress, because the compliance of conventional equipments is generally so large. Taking account of this situation, we proposed a new concept which allows us to do the in-situ tests of hydraulic fracturing for stress measurement at so deep depths as more than 1 km. We call the concept the Baby Borehole Hydrofracturing, BABHY for short. In order to put the new concept into practice, we developed the BABHY sonde and finally we succeeded to carry out hydraulic fracturing test by using the tools in a vertical borehole of 811 m depth. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Large-Scale Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Complex Flow Division, Institute of Fluid Science
ITO Takatoshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Bacteria]

Development of next-generation sterilization method by a plasma flow at atmospheric pressure

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Features

Plasma sterilization has been developed as an alternative sterilization method due to its chemical activity, operation at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, low cost and safety. We have studied a mechanism of chemical species generation and transport in a plasma flow and, the sterilization efficacy and mechanism for several plasma sources at atmospheric pressure, such as a microwave plasma flow, a dielectric barrier discharge in a tube and a water vapor plasma flow. We already clarified that the damages of outer membrane and destructions of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli by exposure to the microwave plasma flow. Fig. 1 shows the effect of plasma exposure on the E. coli. When the E. coli was exposed to the plasma, the height of the E. coli decreased and the potassium leakage of cytoplasmic material increased. For sterilization in a tube, we also clarified that an induced flow in the narrow tube by DBD transports chemical species and sterilize the whole inside surface of a tube as shown in Fig. 2. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Fluid Science
SATO Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Bacteria-induced deterioration]

Oral Biofilm Functional Analysis: from “What Are They?" to “What Are They Doing?"

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Features

A large number of microorganisms inhabit the oral cavity, such as the teeth, gingiva and tongue, in the form of oral biofilm. The oral cavity forms an ecosystem where the host (humans) and parasites (microorganisms) coexist. Disruption of the balance of this oral ecosystem leads to dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral malodor, and even deterioration of dental materials.

Using leading-edge techniques of anaerobic experimental systems including original and unique devices, as well as the notion of "omics" such as metagenomics and metabolomics, we conduct research on oral biofilm functions. Knowledge of oral biofilms, from "what are they?" to "what are they doing?", enables us to address their control, that is, prevention of and therapy for oral biofilm-associated diseases.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Risk assessment of oral biofilm-associated diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, oral malodor and aspiration pneumonia
Effects of medicine and food ingredients on oral biofilm function
Evaluation of biofilm-mediated material deterioration

Division of Oral Ecology and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Dentistry
TAKAHASHI Nobuhiro, Professor DDS, PhD

[Basal metabolic rates]

Development of New Drugs and Devices Regulating Inter-Organ Neural Network for Obesity Therapy

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Features

Obesity induced the metabolic syndrome, which causes cardiovascular diseases. Obesity has now become a major health concern not only in developed countries but developing countries. However, diet and exercise are still major therapies. We discovered endogenous systems maintaining homeostasis of energy metabolism and revealed several neuronal networks among organs to be responsible for the regulation systems.
1) Afferent neuronal signals from adipose tissue regulate appetite and prevent over-eating during obesity development (Cell Metab 2006)
2) Neuronal network from the liver enhances basal metabolic rates to prevent obesity development when energy store is increasing (Science 2006) 3) Neuronal network from the liver suppresses adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (Cell Metab 2012).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

On the basis of these original discoveries, we are aiming at developing new drugs and/or building devices which regulate the inter-organ neuronal networks and hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application to obesity therapy.

Center for Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine
KATAGIRI Hideki, Professor MD, PhD

[Base Metal Production]

Advanced Recycling Process and Development of Environmental Preservation Technologies

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Features

A large amount of resources are utilized in the base metal production processes such as iron & steel, copper and zinc. Therefore, it is important to improve such process efficiencies for solving the energy and environmental issues. On the other hand, the increasing production in developing countries leads to the depletion of high-grade resources. In this laboratory, basic researches for integrated processes from pretreatment, metal manufacturing, refining and recycling are made for the development of new processes with high efficiency and low environmental load by utilizing "low-grade" resources.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Iron & steel making and nonferrous industries, development of efficient utilization processes of biomass and organic waste energies

Graduate School of Environmental Studies
KASAI Eiki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Bayes Modeling]

Data Analytics for Creation of Social Values

Features

My research field is a data analytics for creation of social values by data science approaches. In modern society, we can observe various data sets about our daily life, business or community. I aim to create new services for it using such data set and methods of Bayesian modeling, data mining or machine learning.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Economics and Management
ISHIGAKI Tsukasa, Associate Professor Doctor of Philosophy

[Bayesian Optimization]

Optimizing everything / Optimal Society

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Features

Aiming at developing practical quantum optimization technology known as quantum annealing, we are working on exploring basic technologies that can overcome the limitations and applications in collaboration with multiple companies. The advantage of the method is that it can be used simply by formulating a cost function that draws the goal to be optimized once, but we are not limited to the original method. We extend it by considering a much easier problem, sequential optimization by learning, black box optimization, etc.. In particular, it is being applied to automated driving, logistics in factories, and evacuation guidance during disasters.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Applications to route search problems such as automatic driving of various vehicles, evacuation route guidance at the time of disaster, process scheduling and a large number of combination problems. We can provide a solution to combinatorial optimization in each industry. (Transportation / distribution, manufacturing, materials, drug discovery, etc.)

Graduate School of Information Sciences, Applied Information Sciences, Information and Applied Technology, Physical Fluctuomatics
OHZEKI Masayuki, Associate Professor Doctor of Science

[Beam Yielding Mechanism]

[Big Data]

Brain Development and Aging Using Large Brain MRI Database

Features

We have revealed relationships among brain structure, brain function, lifestyle, genetic factor, and cognitive function using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) database. The goal of our project is to prevent several diseases and disorders such as dementia by performing personalized medicine using the large brain MRI database.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our research is related with several industrial fields such as food, sleep, and other lifestyle industries. In addition, our research is also related with medical field such as preventing medicine and brain check-up.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
TAKI Yasuyuki, Professor Ph.D.

[Bio-FET sensor]

Development of Biomedical Micro/Nano Integrated System Using LSI Technology

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Features

Semiconductor neural engineering is a discipline that uses semiconductor process/device/circuit technologies to further understand properties of neural systems and to create novel fusion systems of living body and machine.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

One of the goals in this laboratory is to establish semiconductor neural engineering and develop biomedical micro/nano integrated systems.
Another goal is to educate the next generation of leaders in biomedical engineering through research including:
1. Intelligent Si neural probe and biomedical signal processing LSI
2. Fully-implantable retinal prosthesis system
3. Bio/nano technology and novel Bio-FET sensor
4. 3-dimensional integration technology and analog/digital LSI design

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
TANAKA Tetsu, Professor Ph.D. (Engineering)

[Bio-inspired Robotics]

Understanding Biological Control Systems and its Application to Development of Life-Like Resilient Systems

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Features

In contrast to artificial systems, living organisms exhibit astoundingly adaptive and resilient properties. One of the central research goals in our laboratory is to endow artificial systems with similar properties. To this end, we are particularly focusing on the concept of autonomous decentralized control. We have so far successfully developed various types of robots on the basis of decentralized control, including amoeboid robots, snake-like robots, legged robots etc., in collaboration with mathematicians and biologists.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Development of adaptive autonomous robotic system, Control of Large D.O.F. system

Research Institute of Electrical Communication
ISHIGURO Akio, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Bio-interface]

Creation of a high functional bio-interface using laser fabrication

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Features

 Using laser fabrication, we are developing techniques to enhance material surface properties and functionality. For example, to create a functional interface, we aim to clarify, by way of simulation and experimentation, the phenomenon that occurs when the surface of a material is irradiated using a laser beam.
 We expect that the results of our research will be widely applicable, including biomedical devices.

■ Creation of biocompatible surfaces
 Materials used for artificial organs, vessels, and other bio-implants require excellent tissue and cell biocompatibility. Therefore, we are exploring the creation of biocompatible surfaces using a new laser irradiation process in this study.
 We have succeeded in imparting a biologically active function to titanium-based materials by applying the laser irradiation technique. When such a material that has a biologically active function is inserted in a living body, hydroxyapatite (the principal constituent of bones and teeth) precipitates on the surface. Using the laser irradiation technique, we can manufacture bone-adherent implants, and we envisage their application to artificial joints or dental implants.
 This research aims to discover such breakthrough solutions for biomedical applications using the laser irradiation technique.

Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering
MIZUTANI Masayoshi, Associate Professor Ph. D. (Engineering)

 b

[barley]

Methods to Restore Strelity of Gramineous Plants under High- and Low-Temperature Stress Conditions

Features

Plant reproductive development is more sensitive than vegetative growth to many environmental stresses. High-temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem due to recent global warming. In wheat, barley, and other crops, the early phase of anther development is most susceptible to high temperature. Oppositely, grain yields in rice plants are often reduced by exposure to low temperature. Unexpected climate change, such as abnormally hot or cool summer temperatures, have occurred repeatedly during recent years. This method indicates that an appropriate use of specific phytohormones, such as auxin and GA, may promote stress tolerance and adaptation to abiotic stresses.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

These potentially novel functions of the classical phytohormones will be important sustainable agriculture in the face of global climate change.

Graduate School of Life Sciences
HIGASHITANI Atsushi, Professor Doctor of Science

[barometric sensor]

Assessment of Physical Activities Using Wearable Sensors

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Features

Maintaining appropriate amount of physical activity is essential for health and disease prevention. Gait is the most common type of physical activity in everyday life. Monitoring the amount of physical activity in everyday lives may benefit mainly those who are at threat of metabolic syndrome and overweight. Towards better estimation of the amount of physical activity utilizing wearable sensors, we focused on taking running and walking economy into account. The relationship between step length and oxygen uptake was first determined. Step length estimation with moderate accuracy was accomplished using acceleration signals during walking. Step length was then taken into energy expenditure calculation as one of the variables.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Together with the basic version of the current locomotion monitoring system capable of counting staircase climbing up & down, we managed to upgrade our locomotion monitoring system into 3 dimensional.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
NAGATOMI Ryoichi, Professor M.D. & Ph.D.

[baroreflex sensitivity]

Quantitative Evaluation of the Baroreflex Sensitivity of the Heart and Artery

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Features

Metabolic syndrome is an important view point, when we consider the preventive medicine. Hypertension is one of the most important points to prevent the cardiovascular events. However, there is no method to measure the baroreflex sensitivity of the artery in the patients with hypertension. Tohoku University had invented the new method to evaluate the baroreflex sensitivity of the heart and artery (JP Patent No.4789203).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

By the use of this machine, the baroreflex sensitivity of an artery in the patients can easily be measured noninvasively. It enables to predict the occurrence of hypertension and evaluate the therapy of hypertension easily, while allowing prevention of the cardiovascular events.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
YAMBE Tomoyuki, Professor

[battery]

“HYDRIDE" Researches for Energy Applications

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Features

This group is engaged in basic and applied researches of "hydrides" for practical use in hydrogen energy system. The main subject is the exploration of advanced hydrogen storage materials which support hydrogen energy technologies such as fuel cells. Currently, we synthesize a wide variety of novel hydrides composed of lightweight metals with specific nano-structures using advanced techniques for crystal and electronic structure analyses. In addition to the hydrogen storage, we develop the wide research fields related to hydrides, such as fast lithium ionic conductors.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Besides the contributions in industrial progress through the material development for future hydrogen energy system and next-generation secondary battery, we positively provide technical assistance to organizations and companies concerned about our findings.

WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research /Institute for Materials Research
ORIMO Shin-ichi, Professor

[big data analysis]

Experimental Nuclear Physics

Features

1) Study of strangeness nuclear physics and hypernuclei with high energy electron/photon beams

2)加速器研究施設で収集される大量のデータ解析技術、
  荷電粒子、高エネルギー光子の測定技術、

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science
NAKAMURA Satoshi N., Professor Doctor of Science

[bio-magnetic sensor]

Development of High Sensitive Magnetic Sensor Operating at Room Temperature with Tunnel Magnetoresistance Devices

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Features

Recently, many tunnel magnetoresistance devices with high magnetoresistance effect are reported. These are expected to be applied to high sensitive magnetic sensors. There are many magnetic sensors with variety of the mechanism, in order to meet the demand of the very wide range of sensing magnetic field. However, there is no magnetic sensor which has high sensitivity, easy to use, operation at room temperature and low cost. Only a magnetic sensor with tunnel magnetoresistance devices can satisfy all the demand in principle. As the device has very wide range of the sensing magnetic field, it can be designed for any demand to the sensors.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For example, this device can sense a bio-magnetic field easily at room temperature, so that it could be replaced SQUID device, which is popular now but is very expensive and not easy to use personally. Therefore, by using this device, we expect we can conduct effective collaborative research in medical field.

Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering
ANDO Yasuo, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[bio-organic chemistry]

Creation of cancer cell specific oligonucleotide therapeutics

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Features

Focusing our reseach interest mostly on the recognition and complexation behavior control of bioplymrs, such as DNA/RNA, proteines and so on. Another topics are reaction control based on molecular recognition phenomena in both ground and electronically excited states, we are pursuing mechanistic and synthetic studies on asymmetric photochemistry with supramolecular biopolymers as chiral reaction fields.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
WADA Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering