Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"O" Keywords - 55 Result(s)

O

 O

[Obesity]

Development of New Drugs and Devices Regulating Inter-Organ Neural Network for Obesity Therapy

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Obesity induced the metabolic syndrome, which causes cardiovascular diseases. Obesity has now become a major health concern not only in developed countries but developing countries. However, diet and exercise are still major therapies. We discovered endogenous systems maintaining homeostasis of energy metabolism and revealed several neuronal networks among organs to be responsible for the regulation systems.
1) Afferent neuronal signals from adipose tissue regulate appetite and prevent over-eating during obesity development (Cell Metab 2006)
2) Neuronal network from the liver enhances basal metabolic rates to prevent obesity development when energy store is increasing (Science 2006) 3) Neuronal network from the liver suppresses adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (Cell Metab 2012).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

On the basis of these original discoveries, we are aiming at developing new drugs and/or building devices which regulate the inter-organ neuronal networks and hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application to obesity therapy.

Center for Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine
KATAGIRI Hideki, Professor MD, PhD

Analysis of Function of Functional Food Components Preventing Atherosclerosis

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We have much experience on basic studies including experimental animal research on improvement of lipid metabolism and prevention of obesity by functional food components. Causes of obesity and abnormality of lipid metabolism are complex, and measurement of enzyme activity and gene expression does not necessarily give us the precise information on mechanisms of improvement of lipid metabolism and prevention of obesity by food components.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Based on our experience, we are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research. In some situations, we can conduct effective collaborative research in this field.

Food Function and Health, Graduate School of Agricultural Science
IKEDA Ikuo, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[Object Tracking]

High-Speed Vision for Real-Time Motion Analysis

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We are investigating high-speed vision systems that enable real-time image acquisition and visual processing at frame rates substantially higher than the standard video rate.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

High-speed vision systems are useful for fast measurement and control of dynamic systems in general. When combined with external facilities such as high-speed projectors or acceleration sensors, they enable further wider applications including fast 3D measurement or object identification.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
KAGAMI Shingo, Associate Professor Ph.D. (Eng.)

[Occlusal accuracy]

High-Precision Capturing of 3-D Dental-Arch Shapes and Their Occlusal Relation and its Potential Implementation into CAD/CAM Dentistry

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In spite of the long history of digital dentistry, the accuracy of the prosthetics fabricated with CAD/CAM systems is far from satisfactory. Jaw opening during taking impression elicits deformation of the mandible and the lower dental arch, and consequently causes the inaccuracy of occlusal relationship of the upper and lower dental arches on the CAD data. The method presented here utilizes the check-bite record at the maximum intercuspation to correct the relative positions among the teeth in the dental arches as well as between the arches. After this correction, the accuracy of the CAD data is satisfactory enough for the fabrication of the dental prosthetics which need no adjustment during their setting.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This method uses the newly-developed check-bite recording technique together with the conventional precious impression or optical impression techniques. It can easily be applied to the commercial CAD/CAM systems in the market. We hope to collaborate to the manufacturers of dental CAD/CAM systems to increase the accuracy of the systems.

Graduate School of Dentistry
HATTORI Yoshinori, Professor DDS, PhD

[Octane number]

Identification of Ignition and Combustion Characteristics by a Micro Flow Rector with a Temperature Gradient

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We have developed a methodology for identifying general ignition and combustion characteristics of gaseous and liquid fuels including bio and synthetic fuels. It enables identification of ignition and combustion characteristics of new fuels prior to application for practical combustion devices. The reactor system consists of a small diameter channel which has a temperature gradient from room temperature to the auto ignition temperature and thus reaction characteristics in different temperature levels can be easily investigated. Such a measurement had required research level skills and special devices such as rapid compression machine or shock tube which is costly in general, however, the micro flow reactor with temperature gradient enables reaction analysis easily.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

It is expected to contribute to the designing of combustion devices, developments of new fuels, and chemical promoter and inhibitor.

Institute of Fluid Science
MARUTA Kaoru, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Okadaic Acid]

Development of a Novel Quantification Method for Diarrhetic Schell Fish Poisoning

Features

We have investigated isolation and structure determination of natural products and evaluated mode of their actions. We have especially focused on marine natural products causative for a food poisoning, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), which has spread worldwide and threatened regional fishery industry. Dinophysistoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Dinophysis spp. and okadaic acid, are thought to be responsible for DSP. Acute toxicity test using mice has been the primary method for detection of DSP in the fish market, though an alternative method to quantify DSP without sacrificing mice has been requested. We isolated OABP2, a novel okadaic acid binding protein, from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai and succeeded in expression of the recombinant OABP2 in E. coli, which eventually showed high affinity to the DSP toxins.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are now working on visualization of OA by utilizing OABP2 in order to provide an easy and quick quantification method for DSP.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
KONOKI Keiichi, Associate Professor PhD

[On-site/on-line analysis]

Development of new methods and apparatus for industrial elemental analysis

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A goal of our research is to develop new instrumental methods in quantitative elemental analysis. We have suggested a new analytical method enabling trace elements at a few ppm level to be directly determined. We now study analytical applications of a low-pressure laser induced plasma as well as a glow discharge plasma associated with laser ablation, in order to carry out rapid analysis for the process control in material industries and for selection of scrapped materials.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Industry: We have already conducted cooperative research on industrial analyses with several metal-making companies as well as the iron and steel institute of Japan. We also hope cooperative works on practical analysis in various manufacturing fields.

Institute for Materials Research
WAGATSUMA Kazuaki, Professor Doctor Eng.

[Oncogenesis]

Elucidation of oncogenesis by Fbxw7

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Features

In life science research field, it is noteworthy issue how information in genome is interpreted and is transferred to functional molecules. However, during these 10 years, we convinced that the amount of proteins, final functional molecules was regulated by not only by production but also by degradation. For examples, the amount of c-Myc, which promotes cell cycle and inhibits cell death, increase in many types of cancer by failure of protein degradation.
We have generated model mice in which function of Fbxw7, inducer of c-Myc degradation is suppressed. We observed promotion of oncogenesis in these mice, suggesting that Fbxw7 is oncosuppressor gene. In other words, Fbxw7 has a great potential to regulate oncogenesis or progress of cancer. These molecules specified the target proteins for proteolysis suggesting that modification of these molecules leads to develop oncosuppressive therapy. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this knowledge in industry.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Medicine
NAKAYAMA Keiko, Professor Medical Doctor

[Optical]

Development of Electronic Instruments (Radio, Infrared, Optical, and Digital), Extensible Unit, and Embedded Software for Spacecraft

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We have performed the development of the radio wave receivers, radars, infrared & optical cameras / spectrometers, and digital instruments for various space projects. (Ex. KAGUYA [Lunar orbiter], BepiColombo [Mercury orbiter], Hisaki [EUV space telescope], Reimei [Small aurora-observatory], Arase [radiation belt], JUICE [Jupiter], the International Space Station [atmospheric camera IMAP], several sounding rockets and high-altitude balloon experiments.)

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

By historical reasons, the developments of these analog / digital circuits, FPGA, embedded software, extensible mechanics have mainly been with companies and engineers in Kanto and Chubu areas. We hope to find the counter companies / persons in Sendai / Miyagi / Tohoku areas.

Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center
KASABA Yasumasa, Professor PhD (Electronics)

[Optical Devices]

Development of Miniature and Highly-Functional Photonic Devices Using Ultrafine Microstructures

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In our laboratory, miniature and highly-functional photonic devices based on new optical phenomena caused by the interaction of ultrafine microstructures with light have been studied. In addition, development of new production technology to overcome the problems that have been obvious from the practical application viewpoint of nanophotonic devices has been performed.

  • -Main research topics--
MEMS tunable metamaterials for optical control.
Structural color filters using subwavelength gratings for the applications of display and spectroscopic analyzers.
Surface-smoothing technology using surface self-diffusion.
Study of low loss silicon nanophotonic devices.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We aim to realize optical filters, optical resonators, and color filters, by using above technologies. Also, development of nano-photonic elements fabricated by a nanoimprint technology has been progressed.
We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate School of Engineering
KANAMORI Yoshiaki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

 o

[octacalcium phosphate]

Development of Novel Bone Substitute Biomaterials Showing Highly Osteoconductive Property

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Novel bone substitute biomaterials should have a property not only to support cellular attachment on the material surfaces but also activate cellular function of osteoblasts that promote regeneration of bone tissue. Our laboratory successfully developed such materials composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) (Suzuki O et al. Biomaterials 27:2671, 2006), obtained by a restricted synthesis condition originally developed, with specific crystal characteristics, and various natural polymers, such as gelatin, collagen, alginate and hyaluronic acid. The materials consist from OCP and these polymers are capable of enhancing new bone formation concomitant with their own biodegradations. The concept to develop such materials is that (1) design of reaction of calcium phosphate ceramics and the synthesis; (2) design of material strength to meet the mechanical stress from living body; (3) selection of natural and synthetic polymer materials for the calcium phosphate ceramics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering, Graduate School of Dentistry
SUZUKI Osamu, Professor Doctor in Medical Sciencese

New Developments in Bone Regenerative Therapy

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Octacalcium phosphate/collagen composites (OCP/Col: Bonarc), a bone regenerative material commercialized in 2019, outperforms the bone regeneration of existing bone substitutes and is cost-effective and easy to use. Recently, we have demonstrated that the addition of teriparatide (TPTD: a parathyroid hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis) to OCP/Col, or improvements in the manufacturing process of OCP/Col, would expand their use for intractable bone defects and bone augmentation, which is difficult to treat.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

As a medical devise of bone regenerative material, expansion of application in various bone defect (orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, etc.) and overseas expansion would be expected. Furthermore, as a combination product based on OCP/Col would provide a therapeutic alternative for difficult bone defects or urgent surgery.

Bone Regenerative Engineering Laboratory, Regenerative and Biomedical Engineering Division, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
KAMAKURA Shinji, Professor Doctor of Dental Science

[ocular neovascular disease]

Regulation of Angiogenesis

Features

Angiogenesis, i.e., the formation of new capillaries, takes place under pathophysiological conditions including cancers, ocular neovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Anti-angiogenic drugs have been developed, and are now in clinical use. However, because of side effects due to the damage to vascular endothelial cells, the development of anti-angiogenic drugs with different modalities is anticipated. We have isolated vasohibin-1 (VASH1) as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), and vasohibin-2 (VASH2) as its homologue having pro-angiogenic activity.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are planning to develop strategies of VASH1 potentiation and VASH2 inhibition. For VASH1 potentiation, we are planning to use recombinant VASH1 protein or search low molecular weight substances having VASH1 like activity. For VASH2 inhibition, we are succeeded in the development of neutralizing anti-human VASH2 monoclonal antibody.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
SATO Yasufumi, Professor M.D.,PhD

[oligonucleotide therapeutics]

Creation of cancer cell specific oligonucleotide therapeutics

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Focusing our reseach interest mostly on the recognition and complexation behavior control of bioplymrs, such as DNA/RNA, proteines and so on. Another topics are reaction control based on molecular recognition phenomena in both ground and electronically excited states, we are pursuing mechanistic and synthetic studies on asymmetric photochemistry with supramolecular biopolymers as chiral reaction fields.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
WADA Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[olihonucleotide]

Development of Intelligent Molecules for the Regulation of Gene Expression in Cells

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The artificial control of gene expression by synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been the subject of considerable interest. In particular, ODNs conjugated with a cross-linking agent have been expected to enhance the inhibitory effect. Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) endogenously expressed small regulatory non-coding RNAs, are recognized as playing a critical role in regulating gene expression and the great concerns have been raised about efficient antisense oligonucleotides against miRNAs. We have already demonstrated that ODNs bearing a 2-amino-6-vinylpurine (2-AVP) derivative exhibited efficient interstrand cross-linking to cytosine selectively. The unique structural features of AVP are to possess both the hydrogen bond donor-acceptor sites as recognition sites and the vinyl group as a reactive moiety in a single molecule. Recently, we have developed of the novel cross-linking agents, which are designed based on the unique structure of AVP. These derivatives can react to thymine at the complementary site with highly selective and efficient under neutral conditions. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
NAGATSUGI Fumi, Professor PHD

[online multi-user three-dimensional (3D) simulation]

OpenEnergySim: A Virtual World to Assess CO2 Emission

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Intelligent Transport System (ITS) strategies can significantly reduce CO2 emissions of vehicles.
However, there is currently no low-cost yet effective method to investigate the impact of enegry-saving ITS measures on driving behavior. Further, there is no convenient collaboration platform to compare the results of such "green" ITS strategies at an international level.
Therefore, we implement OpenEnergySim, an online multi-user three-dimensional (3D) simulation space, which can serve three functions in one single consistent environment:
1. Visualization of microscopic traffic and CO2 emissions
2. Immersive driving of users in a simulated traffic network, where ITS measures can be applied and tested interactively
3. A shared real-time collaboration space aimed at international partners for studying and comparing the effects of green ITS strategies on CO2 emission reduction
OpenEnergySim can provide a unique platform for green ITS which fosters international collaboration and facilitates harmonization of models in the transport domain.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
KUWAHARA Masao, Professor Ph.D

[opinion/information analysis]

Natural Language Processing for Semantic Analysis of Big Data

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This lab conducts fundamental research for deep natural language processing (NLP) and NLP-oriented information organization such as classification, extraction, and summarization of language information. Our activities also cover a broad range of applied research including NLP-based information and knowledge mining, information credibility analysis, and resilient ICT through the maximal use of Big Data.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

(i) Analysis of market trend or research trend through intelligent text mining, (ii) Discovery of potential needs and risks from opinions in social media, (iii) Management of knowledge in a company by analyzing internal documents, etc.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
INUI Kentaro, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[optical biopsy]

Development of Optical Sysytems for Noninvasive Treatment and Diagnosis

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Optical fiber-based endoscopic systems for non-invasive treatment and diagnosis are developed. The fiber transmits high-powered laser light for treatment and low-powered light for diagnosis. We develop treatment and diagnosis systems utilizing not only common glass-based optical fibers but hollow-optical fibers. Hollow optical fibers deliver high-powered infrared lasers and light with wide range of wavelength from ultraviolet and far infrared.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our potential collaborators will be medical device manufactures, as well as any electronic device, communication device, and measurement instrument manufactures considering new entry to the field.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
MATSUURA Yuji, Professor

[optical communications systems]

R&D in Semiconductor Materials and their Device Applications Bringing System Evolutions

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1. Development of Distributed Feedback (DFB) Laser Diodes (LD) widely used in optical communications systems realizing a highly information-based society. This LD increases the transmission capacity by 25,000 times per fiber which means the bit rate of 10Tb/s.

2. Nitride semiconductors famous for blue light emitting diodes.
(a) Proposal of InGaAlN system considering device applications in 1989
(b) Success in growth of single crystalline InGaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in 1989
(c) Prediction of band-gap energy (Eg) of InN much smaller than the values reported in 1980s and its   experimental confirmation in 2002
(d) Observation of photoluminescence from InGaN in 1991
(e) Prediction of phase separation in InGaAlN in 1997

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

DFB-LD: Fabrication of periodic structure with submicron scale, Epitaxial growth of semiconductor films on the substrate with fine structures, LD fabrication process, device evaluation, and device simulation

Nitride Semiconductors: MOVPE growth, N-polar growth, Evaluation of semiconductor materials, Fabrication of light-emitting devices, solar cells, and high-power transistors

New Industry Creation Hatchery Center
MATSUOKA Takashi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[optical fibers]

Development of Optical Sysytems for Noninvasive Treatment and Diagnosis

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Optical fiber-based endoscopic systems for non-invasive treatment and diagnosis are developed. The fiber transmits high-powered laser light for treatment and low-powered light for diagnosis. We develop treatment and diagnosis systems utilizing not only common glass-based optical fibers but hollow-optical fibers. Hollow optical fibers deliver high-powered infrared lasers and light with wide range of wavelength from ultraviolet and far infrared.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our potential collaborators will be medical device manufactures, as well as any electronic device, communication device, and measurement instrument manufactures considering new entry to the field.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
MATSUURA Yuji, Professor