Tohoku University. Research Profiles

LANGUAGE

"C" Keywords - 119 Result(s)

C

 C

[CAD/CAM]

High-Precision Capturing of 3-D Dental-Arch Shapes and Their Occlusal Relation and its Potential Implementation into CAD/CAM Dentistry

NEXT
PREV
Features

In spite of the long history of digital dentistry, the accuracy of the prosthetics fabricated with CAD/CAM systems is far from satisfactory. Jaw opening during taking impression elicits deformation of the mandible and the lower dental arch, and consequently causes the inaccuracy of occlusal relationship of the upper and lower dental arches on the CAD data. The method presented here utilizes the check-bite record at the maximum intercuspation to correct the relative positions among the teeth in the dental arches as well as between the arches. After this correction, the accuracy of the CAD data is satisfactory enough for the fabrication of the dental prosthetics which need no adjustment during their setting.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This method uses the newly-developed check-bite recording technique together with the conventional precious impression or optical impression techniques. It can easily be applied to the commercial CAD/CAM systems in the market. We hope to collaborate to the manufacturers of dental CAD/CAM systems to increase the accuracy of the systems.

Graduate School of Dentistry
HATTORI Yoshinori, Professor DDS, PhD

[Calibration]

Advanced Vision System with Less Calibration

NEXT
PREV
Features

The difficulties of introducing robot systems in production line are maintenance of environment and teaching of robot motion. Environ recognition and motion teaching using vision system will greatly improve the difficulties. However, calibration of vision-robot system is tedious and troublesome. Feedback control using vision sensor information will allow robustness against environment and teach by showing. This technique is called visual servo.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Visual servo will allow flexible camera setting, calibration-less system setting, and easy teaching.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
HASHIMOTO Koichi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[CALPHAD]

Development of new materials based on the calculation of thermodynamic properties through electronic theory

Features

We are conducting studies on computing the free energies of materials; the structures and physical properties of grain boundaries and stacking faults; and the thermodynamic properties of the liquid and glassy phases by coupling first-principles calculations and cluster variation methods, as well as quantum molecular dynamics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Furthermore, the world’s highest-purity materials are produced through a combination of chemical and physical refining methods to confirm the calculated thermodynamic properties with high accuracy and to develop new materials such as magnetic materials, semiconductors, and lightweight materials based on Mg and Al alloys.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
OHTANI Hiroshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Cambodia]

Landmine detection sensor

NEXT
PREV
Features

ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor system, which consists of a metal detector and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The most unique feature of ALIS is its visualiza- tion function of the metal detector and GPR. Operators can easily identify buried mines on the visualized image.
The full features of a state-of-the-art metal detector are available, for example the soil compensation function and the pinpointing capability. The GPR antennas are integrated into search head together with metal detector coils. The control unit holds all the electronics and a rechargeable battery. The color LCD display provides the survey results both from the metal detector and the GPR as images. Audio alert is also available for the metal detector indication.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Center for Northeast Asian Studies
SATO Motoyuki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Cancer]

Regulation of Angiogenesis

Features

Angiogenesis, i.e., the formation of new capillaries, takes place under pathophysiological conditions including cancers, ocular neovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Anti-angiogenic drugs have been developed, and are now in clinical use. However, because of side effects due to the damage to vascular endothelial cells, the development of anti-angiogenic drugs with different modalities is anticipated. We have isolated vasohibin-1 (VASH1) as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), and vasohibin-2 (VASH2) as its homologue having pro-angiogenic activity.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are planning to develop strategies of VASH1 potentiation and VASH2 inhibition. For VASH1 potentiation, we are planning to use recombinant VASH1 protein or search low molecular weight substances having VASH1 like activity. For VASH2 inhibition, we are succeeded in the development of neutralizing anti-human VASH2 monoclonal antibody.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
SATO Yasufumi, Professor M.D.,PhD

Creation of cancer cell specific oligonucleotide therapeutics

NEXT
PREV
Features

Focusing our reseach interest mostly on the recognition and complexation behavior control of bioplymrs, such as DNA/RNA, proteines and so on. Another topics are reaction control based on molecular recognition phenomena in both ground and electronically excited states, we are pursuing mechanistic and synthetic studies on asymmetric photochemistry with supramolecular biopolymers as chiral reaction fields.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
WADA Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Carbon dioxide]

Development of catalytic reaction system for direct synthesis from CO2 and diols

Features

We found an effective catalyst system composed of CeO2 and 2-cyanopyridine for direct and catalytic polycarbonate formation reaction from CO2 and diols. CeO2 acted as an activator for CO2 and diols, and 2-cyanopyridine shifted the equilibrium in favor of the product side by hydration of 2-cyanopyridine, promoting the reaction. Green polycarbonates can be synthesized by combination of the catalyst system with a technique of diol syntheses from biomass.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This catalyst system is effective for direct transformation of CO2, contributing to the effective utilization and emission reduction of CO2. Combination of the catalyst system with a concentration technique of CO2 will bring about much advantage.

Graduate School of Engineering / Research Center for Rare Metal and Green Innovation
TOMISHIGE Keiichi, Professor Doctor of Science

[Carbon nanotube]

Development of High Performance Carbon Nanotube-Alumina Composite

NEXT
PREV
Features

One of the important challenges in the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced ceramic composites is uniform dispersion of CNTs in the matrix. The mechanical properties of CNT/ceramics composites have been limited to date due to the formation of CNT agglomerates in the composite. We have successfully produced CNT/alumina composites with world top class strength and toughness, by employing a newly developed CNTs dispersion technique based on a flocculation method. The processing method developed in this study enables us to prepare high performance CNT materials using a pressureless sintering method.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The possible applications of the CNT/alumina composites developed in this study include tribological materials (ball bearing), biomaterials (artificial hip joint), micro-actuator materials utilizing electrostrictive effects, electromagnetic wave absorber, particularly in the frequency range of several GHz and several ten GHz.

Graduate School of Engineering
HASHIDA Toshiyuki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Cardiac Contraction]

Noninvasive Ultrasonic Measurement of Dynamic Properties of Heart and Arteries

NEXT
PREV
Features

Complexity of the cardiac contraction sequence is still not fully understood because the dynamic mechanical excitation process, which directly correlates with contraction, cannot be accurately measured by CT, MRI, SPECT, or conventional ultrasound. By developing a noninvasive novel imaging modality with high temporal and spatial resolutions (US patent 5840028), we have detected the minute mechanical response (velocity component) to the propagation of the action potential in the human heart or to detect the propagation of the vibrations along the heart wall caused by the valve closure (Fig. 2).
By applying the same procedure to the human arteries, the regional change in wall thickness caused during one cardiac cycle can be measured with high spatial resolution (Fig. 1). From the measurement, the regional elasticity of tissue surrounding atherosclerotic plaque can be determined. By comparing the pathological findings with the distribution of elasticity, elasticity of lipid and that of fibrous tissue were determined. Thus, each point inside the plaque is classified into lipid or fibrous tissue using transcutaneous ultrasound (Fig. 3).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This novel method offers potential as a diagnostic technique for detection of plaque vulnerability with high spatial resolution.
We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
KANAI Hiroshi, Professor PhD

[Casting]

Development of Innovative Casting Technology

NEXT
PREV
Features

In casting process, molten metal is poured into a mold and solidified for making complex shaped metallic product that is used in a variety field of industries. Major research field of my research laboratory is the innovative casting technology, that is, the research on computer simulation technology for prediction of typical casting defects (shrinkage, segregation and so on), and the semi-sold die casting process for light metals. Applications of the casting technology are based on the needs from the industries. Not only hardware technology but also software technology are fully used for the establishment of the cutting edge casting technology.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Followings are targeted applications of co-operative research with industries.
1.Casting CAE(Computer Aided Engineering)system (Fig.1)
2.Quick, simple and easy semi-solid metallic slurry making method (Fig. 2)
3.Macro-segregation simulation technology (Fig.3)
4.Advanced casting CAE technology based on particle method

Graduate School of Engineering
TAKAHASHI, Masahiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Catalysts]

Advanced Molecular Transformations by Organocatalysts

NEXT
PREV
Features

The development of organic molecules which function as a catalyst has been extensively investigated to achieve selective and efficient transformation of organic molecules. Brønsted acids and bases are commonly employed as the catalyst in synthetic organic chemistry. To aim at their functionalization, axially chiral phosphoric acids and axially chiral guanidine bases have been developed as chiral Brønsted acid and base catalysts, respectively. A variety of optically active compounds has been synthesized through the development of highly stereoselective reactions using these catalysts.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The development of chiral Brønsted acid and base catalysts has been accomplished as recoverable and reusable organocatalysts and highly stereoselective molecular transformations have been established using these catalysts. The present methodology is applicable to process chemistry in preparing medicines and relevant compounds on the basis of the selective and efficient molecular transformations thus developed with reduction of the waste material.

Graduate School of Science
TERADA Masahiro, Professor PhD

[Catheter]

Minimally Invasive Medical Devices and Healthcare Devices Using Micro/Nano Machining Technology

NEXT
PREV
Features

Medical devices and healthcare devices which have several functions with small size have been developed using precise micromachining technology and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technology. More precise and safe diagnostics and therapy, as well as novel diagnostics and treatment can be realized by developing high-functionalized endoscopes and catheters and developing novel medical devices. Healthcare without restriction of location and time is aimed by developing thin, light and high-functionalized new healthcare devices.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Besides of basic research, we are working in cooperation with clinicians and medical device companies for practical use. We founded a university-launched venture company for bridge-building between university and company and collaborative researches have been performed.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
HAGA Yoichi, Professor Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Engineering

[Cavitation]

Cavitation Peening

NEXT
PREV
Features

Surface modification method to improve fatigue strength has been developed using cavitation impacts, which are normally causes severe damage in hydraulic machineries. The method was called "cavitation peening". In order to make clear the mechanism, a load controlled plate bending fatigue test machine was developed. It was proved by using the test machine that the threshold level of stress intensity factor was improved about 1.9 times by cavitation peening. The mitigation of hydrogen embrittlement by cavitation peening was also improved.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The cavitation peening can apply to component of automobile and forging die. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate School of Engineering
SOYAMA Hitoshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

 c

[calcium phosphate ceramics]

Development of Novel Bone Substitute Biomaterials Showing Highly Osteoconductive Property

NEXT
PREV
Features

Novel bone substitute biomaterials should have a property not only to support cellular attachment on the material surfaces but also activate cellular function of osteoblasts that promote regeneration of bone tissue. Our laboratory successfully developed such materials composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) (Suzuki O et al. Biomaterials 27:2671, 2006), obtained by a restricted synthesis condition originally developed, with specific crystal characteristics, and various natural polymers, such as gelatin, collagen, alginate and hyaluronic acid. The materials consist from OCP and these polymers are capable of enhancing new bone formation concomitant with their own biodegradations. The concept to develop such materials is that (1) design of reaction of calcium phosphate ceramics and the synthesis; (2) design of material strength to meet the mechanical stress from living body; (3) selection of natural and synthetic polymer materials for the calcium phosphate ceramics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering, Graduate School of Dentistry
SUZUKI Osamu, Professor Doctor in Medical Sciencese

[carbon fiber]

Peptide formation under high P and T conditions: new carbon fibers

NEXT
PREV
Features

Peptides are formed through the enzymatic actions in living organisms, but difficulty exists to form peptide by non-enzymatic actions. Here we report the success of peptide formation under anhydrous, high P and T conditions. We were successful to form 11-mer of glycine and 5-mer of alanine. They are important constituents of spider silk, which is a candidate of next generation of carbon fibers. Therefore, our techniques have potentials to apply making new carbon fibers without biotechnology.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Geosciences Department, Graduate School of Science
KAKEGAWA Takshi, Professor Ph.D.

[catalyst]

Development of Open Nanoporous Base and Half Metals, Metalloids and their Alloys

NEXT
PREV
Features

Nanoporous metals have drawn considerable attention due to their highly functional properties. They are generally produced by selective dissolution of elements from a multicomponent alloy (known as the dealloying method). As this method is based on differences in the electrode potential of each element present in the alloy, and this potential is high for noble metals, porous structure can be obtained only for noble metals. Recently we have found a new, simple and easy dealloying method without using aqueous solution, which enable us to develop an open nanoporous non-oxidized metallic material even with base metals (such as Ti, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mo, etc), metalloids and their alloys.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This technique is very powerful for developing new functional electrodes, catalysts, filters as well for removing toxic metallic element from the surface of biomaterials containing the toxic element.

Institute for Materials Research
KATO Hidemi, Professor PhD (Engineering)

Development of catalytic reaction system for direct synthesis from CO2 and diols

Features

We found an effective catalyst system composed of CeO2 and 2-cyanopyridine for direct and catalytic polycarbonate formation reaction from CO2 and diols. CeO2 acted as an activator for CO2 and diols, and 2-cyanopyridine shifted the equilibrium in favor of the product side by hydration of 2-cyanopyridine, promoting the reaction. Green polycarbonates can be synthesized by combination of the catalyst system with a technique of diol syntheses from biomass.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This catalyst system is effective for direct transformation of CO2, contributing to the effective utilization and emission reduction of CO2. Combination of the catalyst system with a concentration technique of CO2 will bring about much advantage.

Graduate School of Engineering / Research Center for Rare Metal and Green Innovation
TOMISHIGE Keiichi, Professor Doctor of Science

[cell]

Visualization of Biological Microstructure with High Frequency Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Imaging

NEXT
PREV
Features

"Features"
High-resolution imaging of biological tissue is non-invasively obtained with high frequency ultrasound. We have developed some ultrasound microscope systems which realized the resolution of 15-micron with 100 MHz and resolution to visualize a single cell with GHz range ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging provides not only tissue morphology but also information on tissue elasticity. Recently, we have developed a real-time three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging system for visualization of subcutaneous micro vasculature and oxygen saturation.
"Targeted Application(s)/Industry"
High frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging is repeatedly and non-invasively applied for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, skin aging and tissue metabolism. They are useful for efficacy assessment of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. High frequency ultrasound is also applied in the industrial areas where thickness measurement of opaque film or bilayer thin coating with the precision of 0.1 micron is required.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
SAIJO Yoshifumi, Professor PhD (Medicine)

Development of next-generation sterilization method by a plasma flow at atmospheric pressure

NEXT
PREV
Features

Plasma sterilization has been developed as an alternative sterilization method due to its chemical activity, operation at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, low cost and safety. We have studied a mechanism of chemical species generation and transport in a plasma flow and, the sterilization efficacy and mechanism for several plasma sources at atmospheric pressure, such as a microwave plasma flow, a dielectric barrier discharge in a tube and a water vapor plasma flow. We already clarified that the damages of outer membrane and destructions of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli by exposure to the microwave plasma flow. Fig. 1 shows the effect of plasma exposure on the E. coli. When the E. coli was exposed to the plasma, the height of the E. coli decreased and the potassium leakage of cytoplasmic material increased. For sterilization in a tube, we also clarified that an induced flow in the narrow tube by DBD transports chemical species and sterilize the whole inside surface of a tube as shown in Fig. 2. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Fluid Science
SATO Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

Bio-Hybrid MEMS for Medical, Environmental and Food Engineering

NEXT
PREV
Features

We have developed original manufacturing techniques for bio-hybrid MEMSs that utilize special functions of bio-elements, proteins and living cells, for molecular selective sensing and power generation from natural fuels.
(1) Conducting polymer electrodes printed on hydrogels (image 1)
(2) Dynamic control of bio-adhesion by electrochemical means (image 2)
(3) Micro Biofuel Cells with flexible enzyme electrode patches (image 3)

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of these technologies in industry.

Department of Bioengineering and Robotics, Graduate School of Engineering
NISHIZAWA Matsuhiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering