Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"P" Keywords - 101 Result(s)

P

 P

[photopharmacology]

Imaging and photoregulation of biological functions

Features

To properly understand the functions of biomolecules, it is essential to observe them under physiological conditions where the interactions with other biomolecules are preserved. Therefore, we are developing new functional molecules using both organic chemistry and protein science approaches, and working on the visualization and optical control of biomolecules and their functions. Especially, we have developed fluorescent probes that quantitate the concentration of biomolecules or ions in subcellular regions such as organelles and caged compounds and photoswitches that optically manipulate the biomolecular functions.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
MIZUKAMI Shin, Professor Ph.D.

[Physical Exercise]

Smart Ageing Initiative

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Features

In Japan, the percentage of elderly people aged 65 years or over was 23.1% in 2010. It is no doubt that Japan is the world's first super-aging society. In such a super-aging environment, it is necessary to form a society in which each individual can play an active role even as one becomes older in order to maintain and improve the quality of life of all people and to maintain a healthy society. In advanced brain science, research from the fields of brain function imaging, cognitive science, and psychology has been utilized with the aim of realizing a healthy aging society. Up to date information on various new technologies and related discoveries has been disseminated so that individuals can live a healthy life with peace of mind at every stage of aging, while maintaining and improving the health of their brain and mind in a diverse and complex society.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We believe to overcome super-aging environments is not only an object of public concern but also big business chances to create new industries.

Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer
KAWASHIMA Ryuta, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[piezoelectric]

Performance enhancement and application development of energy harvesting materials by microstructure design

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Features

To realize IoT society, it is required the sensors, which function without battery charge. We study on energy harvesting materials using our knowledge about materials mechanics and numerical simulation such as finite element method. We recently address to develop energy harvesting devices, which can recovery the unharnessed energy around us as electrical energy.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering
NARITA Fumio, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[piezoelectric crystals]

Development of Novel Scintillator and Piezoelectric Crystals

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Features

Our research target is mainly focused on the topic of development of novel scintillator crystals, piezoelectric crystals, growth technology, characterization and its device application.
We design and synthesize new materials from a view point of Crystal Chemistry, and investigate their structure and physical properties. We also study on photo-detector, as suitable photo-detector fully contribute to get maximum signal from scintillator. This activity is very important to realize practical application of our developed materials. Recently, piezoelectric material and high melting temperature alloy project is also started.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For the purpose of "real" contribution to human culture, we are always carrying out our research activity considering the industrial application. This point is unique feature of our attitude toward science.

Research Laboratory on Advanced Crystal Engineering, Institute for Materials Research
YOSHIKAWA Akira, Professor Doctor of Science

[Piezoelectric device]

MEMS/Micromachines and Microfabrication Technology

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Features

We are studying MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) and related technologies, which are typically used for the input/output of information/communication devices, the safety of automobiles etc. Our representative topics include integrated sensors, piezoelectric devices, RF MEMS, micro energy devices and wafer-level packages. Our facilities are open-accessible and well equipped with a lot of tools for lithography, dry/wet etching, thin film deposition, wafer bonding, device mounting and evaluations, which can be operated by each researcher. Using these tools, a variety of MEMS are being prototyped. Also, new microfabrication tools are being developed by ourselves.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are collaborating with many companies, from which visiting researchers are dispatched to our laboratory. We also accept companies which want to just use specific tools in our facilities. Consultation is always welcome.

Department of Bioengineering and Robotics, Graduate School of Engineering
TANAKA Shuji, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[piezoelectric sensors]

Development of Novel Scintillator and Piezoelectric Crystals

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Features

Our research target is mainly focused on the topic of development of novel scintillator crystals, piezoelectric crystals, growth technology, characterization and its device application.
We design and synthesize new materials from a view point of Crystal Chemistry, and investigate their structure and physical properties. We also study on photo-detector, as suitable photo-detector fully contribute to get maximum signal from scintillator. This activity is very important to realize practical application of our developed materials. Recently, piezoelectric material and high melting temperature alloy project is also started.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For the purpose of "real" contribution to human culture, we are always carrying out our research activity considering the industrial application. This point is unique feature of our attitude toward science.

Research Laboratory on Advanced Crystal Engineering, Institute for Materials Research
YOSHIKAWA Akira, Professor Doctor of Science

[Pig]

Development of Immunobiotic Evaluation System for Functional Feeds as a Livestock Animal Model

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Features

Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family plays an important role in the defense through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or microorganisms-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs).
Some functional feed materials are thought to regulate intestinal immunity by contact and stimulation of epithelial cells and immunocompetent cells via PRRs in the gastrointestinal tract and induction of cytokine production. In this "new world" of feed immunology, however, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms of intestinal immunity because of lack of appropriate intestinal immunoassay system for livestock animals.
We have advanced application of originally established porcine and bovine intestinal epitheliocytes (PIE, BIE) cell lines (see photo) for evaluation of immunobiotics and immunogenics exerting anti-inflammatory responses both in PIE cell monolayer and co-culture system with porcine peyer's patch immune cells as a peyer's patch culture model (see illustration).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This evaluation system may also contribute to elucidate immunoregulatory mechanism of immunobiotics and immunogenics mediated by pattern recognition receptors essential to future development of not only immunobiotic feeds but also vaccines using immunobiotics to prevent specific diseases. This can benefit mankind by offering immunobiotic feeds as a safer alternative to conventional antibiotic drug therapy.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
KITAZAWA Haruki, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[Plant activator]

Study on Molecular Mechanism for Plant Immune System

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Features

Plants have immune system against pathogen infection. In our research group, isolation of disease resistance genes, analysis of signal transduction pathways for disease resistance and characterization of defense-related proteins have been performed so far. In addition, we produced transgenic plants expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of defense-inducible promoter, which will be useful to visualize the induction of defense system.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our knowledge obtained from the study on the mechanism(s) for plant immune system and the reporter transgenic plants will be available for screening chemical compounds activating plant immune system (so-called "plant activator").

Plant Pathology, Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural Science
TAKAHASHI Hideki, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[Plant pathogens]

Study on Molecular Mechanism for Plant Immune System

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Features

Plants have immune system against pathogen infection. In our research group, isolation of disease resistance genes, analysis of signal transduction pathways for disease resistance and characterization of defense-related proteins have been performed so far. In addition, we produced transgenic plants expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of defense-inducible promoter, which will be useful to visualize the induction of defense system.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our knowledge obtained from the study on the mechanism(s) for plant immune system and the reporter transgenic plants will be available for screening chemical compounds activating plant immune system (so-called "plant activator").

Plant Pathology, Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural Science
TAKAHASHI Hideki, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[plasma agri]

Development of Nano-Medical-Agricultural Applied Technology Using Ion-Controlled Plasma

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Features

Since we have developed the techniques (ion control plasma) to generate and control ions, electrons, reactive species (radicals) in the low temperature non-equilibrium plasmas which I can touch by hand, the composite materials using nanoparticles, nanocarbons, biological molecules are synthesized in the nano-electronics field, the minimally-invasive and highly-efficient drug/gene transfection systems are developed in the medical field, and bacteria and insects are killed by the plasma in place of pesticide in the agricultural field.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The ion-controlled plasmas are applied for the minimally-invasive gene transfection system, next-generation agricultural system, the electrode material of highly-efficient battery, and so on. We hope to conduct the collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of the novel plasma nano-medical-agricultural applied technology in industry.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
KANEKO Toshiro, Professor PhD

[Plasma sterilization]

Development of next-generation sterilization method by a plasma flow at atmospheric pressure

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Features

Plasma sterilization has been developed as an alternative sterilization method due to its chemical activity, operation at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, low cost and safety. We have studied a mechanism of chemical species generation and transport in a plasma flow and, the sterilization efficacy and mechanism for several plasma sources at atmospheric pressure, such as a microwave plasma flow, a dielectric barrier discharge in a tube and a water vapor plasma flow. We already clarified that the damages of outer membrane and destructions of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli by exposure to the microwave plasma flow. Fig. 1 shows the effect of plasma exposure on the E. coli. When the E. coli was exposed to the plasma, the height of the E. coli decreased and the potassium leakage of cytoplasmic material increased. For sterilization in a tube, we also clarified that an induced flow in the narrow tube by DBD transports chemical species and sterilize the whole inside surface of a tube as shown in Fig. 2. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Fluid Science
SATO Takehiko, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Plasmon]

Development of Terahertz Semiconductor Devices Using Novel Nano-Heterostructures and Materials and their ICT Applications

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Features

Terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves are expected to explore the potential application fields of future information and communications technologies. We are developing novel, ultra-broadband integrated signal-processing devices/systems operating in the terahertz frequency regime employing novel semiconductor nano-heterostructures and materials. Frequency-tunable plasmon-resonant terahertz emitter and detectors and metamaterial circuits. By using an original dual-grating-gate high-electron mobility transistor (DGG-HEMT) structure with InP-based material systems record-breaking ultrahigh-sensitive detection and coherent monochromatic emission of terahertz radiation have been realized at room temperature. These devices work for terahertz imaging and spectroscopy.
Ultimately-fast terahertz transistors utilizing graphene, carbon-based new material, and compound semiconductor heterojunction material systems.
Graphene-based novel terahertz photonics devices, breaking through the limit on conventional technology. Recently we have succeeded in single-mode terahertz lasing in a dual-gate graphene-channel laser transistor device at 100K. Moreover, we have succeeded in room-temperature terahertz coherent amplification in a dual-grating-gate graphene channel transistor promoted by current-driven graphene Dirac plasmon instability. The obtained maximal gain of 9% is four times as high as the quantum efficiency limit when terahertz photons interact directly with graphene electrons without excitation of graphene plasmons. These will be big steps towards realization of an intense, room-temperature operating graphene plasmonic terahertz laser transistors.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

By making full use of these world-leading device/circuit technologies, we are exploring future ultra-broadband 6G- and 7G-class wireless communication systems as well as spectroscopic/imaging systems for safety and security. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Research Institute of Electrical Communication
OTSUJI Taiichi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Plastic Deformation Capacity]

[Polarization Control Technology]

Development of the high-quality and low-power display system for ultra-realistic communications

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Features

Recently, with a spread of high definition video streaming services and ubiquitous network, development of high-quality, ultra-realistic and low-power display systems has been demanded. We have been studying physical properties of liquid crystal materials, precise control technique of polarization, high performance liquid crystal display (LCD) devices and its application to the advanced display systems for the realization of new media such as electric paper display and digital signage display, and low-energy society. We established a polarization control technology which realizes a precise control of polarization with liquid crystal materials. By using this world-leading technology, we have been studying the control of the surface alignment of liquid crystal molecules and developed a wide-viewing angle and fast switching liquid crystal display, ultra-high definition field-sequential-color display (Fig. 1), ultra-low power reflective full-color display (Fig. 2) and large-size high-quality display system.
We are also studying the ultra-realistic display systems such as a spatial 3D display and a multiple directional viewing display based on the precise light control technique as a next generation interactive communication technologies (Fig.3). We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate School of Engineering
ISHINABE Takahiro, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering

[pollination reaction]

Improvement of Seed Production by Using Reproductive Trait in Crops, Especially, Rice and Cruciferous Crops

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Features

Crops are important for food, environment recovery, energy production, and amenity activity for human being. For improvement of crop seed production, the breeding of crops having environmental stress, is important. Especially the developmental stage from pollination to fertilization is quite weak for these environmental stresses. Thus, by breeding of reproductive trait, we will establish the high productivity and quality of crop seeds. From our research, we found several stress-tolerant genes. We already started the research by both basic and applied level.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For application, we evaluated by taking prize for application in 2001. And our basic data has been published in international Journal, "Nature" and "Science". If anyone is interested in these genes, we hope to conduct to collaborative research for establishing the useful breeding lines.

Graduate School of Life Sciences
WATANABE Masao, Professor PhD.

[Polyarteritis nodosa]

Development of McH-lpr/lpr-RA1 mouse, a study model that spontaneously develops severe autoimmune arthritis, vasculitis, and sialadenitis

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McH/lpr-RA1 mice are recombinant congenic mice descended from MRL/lpr and C3H/lpr mice and develop arthritis, vasculitis, and sialadenitis with high frequency and severity, with severe pannus formation similar to rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, and Sjogren's syndrome. On the other hand, McH/lpr-RA1 mice do not develop systemic lymphadenopathy and severe nephritis as seen in MRL/lpr mice, so they are easy to breed and maintain and can be used for long-term drug administration experiments.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for collagen diseases. It can be applied to the elucidation of the mechanism of onset of immunological adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors and the development of drugs to prevent the onset of such events, etc. Industry-academia collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, test reagent companies, etc. is possible.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
KODAMA Tetsuya, Professor PhD (Engineering), PhD (Medicine)

[polycarbonate]

Development of catalytic reaction system for direct synthesis from CO2 and diols

Features

We found an effective catalyst system composed of CeO2 and 2-cyanopyridine for direct and catalytic polycarbonate formation reaction from CO2 and diols. CeO2 acted as an activator for CO2 and diols, and 2-cyanopyridine shifted the equilibrium in favor of the product side by hydration of 2-cyanopyridine, promoting the reaction. Green polycarbonates can be synthesized by combination of the catalyst system with a technique of diol syntheses from biomass.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This catalyst system is effective for direct transformation of CO2, contributing to the effective utilization and emission reduction of CO2. Combination of the catalyst system with a concentration technique of CO2 will bring about much advantage.

Graduate School of Engineering / Research Center for Rare Metal and Green Innovation
TOMISHIGE Keiichi, Professor Doctor of Science

[Polydiacetylene]

Hybridized Organic and Polymer Nanocrystals for Optically Functional Materials

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Features

Organic-inorganic hybridized nano-material is one of the most important objectives in current material science, which would provide peculiar properties and unique function induced by optoelectronic interactions at the interface. Aiming at the development of novel nanostructure toward photonic devices, we have tried to fabricate well-defined core-shell type hybridized nanocrystals and their ordered array structure, and to evaluate linear and nonlinear optical properties.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Optical devices will contribute the development in the information and commutations, medical field etc. in near future. In addition, these employed fabrication techniques will be applied smoothly to polymer industry so as to enhance remarkably properties in polymer composites.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
OIKAWA Hidetoshi, Professor Doctor of Science

[Polymer]

Development of Novel Bone Substitute Biomaterials Showing Highly Osteoconductive Property

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Features

Novel bone substitute biomaterials should have a property not only to support cellular attachment on the material surfaces but also activate cellular function of osteoblasts that promote regeneration of bone tissue. Our laboratory successfully developed such materials composed of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) (Suzuki O et al. Dent Mater J 39:187, 2020. doi: 10.4012/dmj.2020-001), obtained by a restricted synthesis condition originally developed, with specific crystal characteristics, and various natural polymers, such as gelatin, collagen, alginate and hyaluronic acid. The materials consist from OCP and these polymers are capable of enhancing new bone formation concomitant with their own biodegradations. The concept to develop such materials is that (1) design of reaction of calcium phosphate ceramics and the synthesis; (2) design of material strength to meet the mechanical stress from living body; (3) selection of natural and synthetic polymer materials for the calcium phosphate ceramics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering, Graduate School of Dentistry
SUZUKI Osamu, Professor Doctor in Medical Sciencese

Development of Nano-Interface Chemistry for Materials Sciences Using Surface Forces Measurement

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Features

Our research aims at developing methods, including instrumentation, for characterizing surface (or interface) at the nano-meter level. Most of our research subjects are related to the surface forces measurement, which can directly monitor the interaction between two surfaces. We study phenomena occurring at the solid-liquid interface such as adsorption and structuring of liquids. We have developed the resonance shear measurement which is a sensitive method for evaluating properties of confined liquid for nano-rheology and tribology. Twin-path surface forces apparatus we developed enabled us to study wide variety of samples such as metals, ceramics and plastics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

These methods are applicable for characterizing lubricants, nano-materials, paints, sealants, and cosmetics. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
KURIHARA Kazue, Professor Doctor of Engineering