Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"S" Keywords - 160 Result(s)

S

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[superelastic alloy]

newNovel CoCr-based superelastic metallic biomaterial with low Young's modulus

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Features

General metallic biomaterials, such as stainless steels and conventional CoCr alloys, show a high Young's modulus ten times higher than that of human bones. This is an unfavored feature because it causes the so-called "stress shielding effect" when they are used as implants. β-type Ti alloys have a relatively lower Young's modulus, but they come with a compromise of low wear resistance. The current novel CoCr-based alloys are a breakthrough; they exhibit both a low Young's modulus similar to human bones and a high wear and corrosion resistance. Moreover, they exhibit superelasticity with a huge recoverable strain over 17%, also showing promise as shape memory alloys.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

It is the first time that a low Young's modulus, a high corrosion and wear resistance, and a superior superelastic behavior are simultaneously obtained in a single material. The current novel CoCr-based alloys are promising for biomedical applications such as total hip or knee joint replacements, bone plates, spinal fixation devices, and vascular stents.

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering
XU Xiao, Assistant Professor PhD

[superelastic material]

Novel Cu-Based Shape Memory Alloy with High Ductility

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Features

Recently, we have developed a novel Cu-Al-Mn based shape memory alloy with high SM properties and with a ductility twice higher than that in Nitinol . Furthermore, this novel SM alloy needs no die for the shape setting and is fabricated with relatively low cost. Very recently, we have successfully developed a device to cure ingrown toenail by using this SM alloy.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Very recently, we established a fabrication process for the Cu-Al-Mn sheet, wire and bar with 0.1 - 20mm in thickness or diameter. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application with this new SM alloy.

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering
KAINUMA Ryosuke, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[superresolution]

Development of Vector Beam and its Application to Nanoimaging

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Vector beams are very attractive because of their unique features such as small spot formation and strong longitudinal electric field near focus. We are developing a variety of generation methods of vector beams including Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel-Gaussian beams and their higher order transverse modes. For instance, a smaller spot by approximately 30 % than that by a linearly polarized beam has been demonstrated and applied for nanoimaging.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Confocal scanning microscpy will benefit from vector beams as enhancement of spatial resolution. Otherwise, precision nano-processing will be possible. We are prepared to provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
SATO Shunichi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[superspace group]

Development of Potential Thermoelectric Materials

Features

We have been exploring novel thermoelectric materials. Functions of a solid substance primarily depend on the electronic structure, directly derived from its crystal structure. Through high-quality structure analyses using neutron and X-ray diffraction, combined with first-principles calculations, we have been fabricating materials with desired functions. To date, more than 40 novel materials have been discovered based on our guiding principles.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For developing future device technologies, challenges on thin-film thermionic multilayers and organic thermoelectric materials are currently underway.

Graduate School of Engineering
MIYAZAKI Yuzuru, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Supply Chain Risk]

Visualization of supply chain risks from the resource logistics perspective

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With the increased global concerns of resource and environmental constraints of recent years, the role of mining, as a constituent of social responsibility associated with resource extraction and usage, is becoming increasingly important in the science, technology, and innovation policy. Under increasing public and shareholders' concerns of social and environmental sustainability, the fabrication industries require careful attention owing to their own risks related to the resources and materials that are used in their products and services. The Material Flow Analysis tool and Input output technique provide useful perspectives and valuable evidences for avoiding or minimizing the social and environmental risks related to the demand of resources.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our developed model evaluates the risk weighted flow analysis by combining the resource logistics database and Global Link Input Output model. The estimated results shed light on how resource logistics prepares policy makers and R&D engineers to confront the risks behind resource usage and how the information should be shared among the stakeholders.

Graduate School of Environmental Studies
MATSUBAE Kazuyo, Professor Doctor of Economics

[Support system software]

MEDICINE DETERMINATION SUPPORT SYSTEM AND MEDICINE DETERMINATION SUPPORT PROGRAM

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Features

AIMS: This invention is to support the doctor’s prescription for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, especially in Japanese Clinic (Patent: JP 4176438).
PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To perform a further efficient preparation by providing information for original medicine and generic medicine in the preparation.
SOLUTION: The medicine price, pharmacologic effect and the like of each of original medicine and generic medicine are preliminarily recorded in a medicine database, and a generic medicine corresponding to the original medicine inputted by a doctor is automatically retrieved and displayed on a display. When the total number of the inputted medicine exceeds a number determined by insurance medical care, the generic medicine is retrieved so that the drug price of the group of the same usage is a prescribed amount or less. Welcome to your investment or co-operation.

Department of Diabetes Technology, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
NONOGAKI Katsunori, Professor MD, PhD

[suppressing tumorigenesis]

DIFFERENTIATION INDUCING METHOD ENABLING TUMORIGENESIS OF IPS CELLS TO BE SUPPRESSED

Features

The present invention relates to a technique for differentiating iPS cells into target differentiated cells while suppressing tumorigenesis in the iPS cells. In use of a statin and a differentiation inducer, iPS cells are differentiated into target differentiated cells, whereby iPS cells can be differentiated into differentiated cells in which tumorigenesis is suppressed.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Dentistry Division of Molecular and Regenerative Prosthodontics
EGUSA Hiroshi, Professor D.D.S., Ph.D.

[Surface]

Molecular Dynamics Analysis of Coating and Surface Modification

Features

Molecular-scale mechanism of solid-liquid affinity, wettability, thermal boundary resistance and molecular deposition are analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations toward its control. With a background of heat and mass transport and interfacial thermodynamics, transport phenomena of various scales ranging from spin coating of photoresist to SAM (self-assembled monolayer) and hydrophobic/hydrophilic treatment by attaching some molecular basis are studied. Futhermore, the molecular-scale mechanisms which determine thermophysical properties and the molecular structure that realizes desired thermophysical properties are studied. We can conduct effective collaboration and provide academic consultations to companies interested in our research.

Institute of Fluid Science
OHARA Taku, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Surface Forces]

Development of Nano-Interface Chemistry for Materials Sciences Using Surface Forces Measurement

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Our research aims at developing methods, including instrumentation, for characterizing surface (or interface) at the nano-meter level. Most of our research subjects are related to the surface forces measurement, which can directly monitor the interaction between two surfaces. We study phenomena occurring at the solid-liquid interface such as adsorption and structuring of liquids. We have developed the resonance shear measurement which is a sensitive method for evaluating properties of confined liquid for nano-rheology and tribology. Twin-path surface forces apparatus we developed enabled us to study wide variety of samples such as metals, ceramics and plastics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

These methods are applicable for characterizing lubricants, nano-materials, paints, sealants, and cosmetics. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
KURIHARA Kazue, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[surface hardening]

Advanced Control of Microstructure and Property of Structural Metallic Materials

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Features

Microstructure represents various kinds of heterogeneities in the metallic materials, i.e., grains, component phase, lattice defects and chemical inhomogeneity such as impurity/alloying elements. It can be modified through control of phase transformation/precipitation and deformation/recrystallization by adjusting compositions of materials and/or through processing routes (heat treatment, deformation). Such expertise in micro/nanostructure control is very important in production of current materials from viewpoints of energy saving and recycling in structural materials such as steels and titanium alloys.
We attempt to apply more advanced control of micro/nanostructures, such as atomic structures of crystalline interfaces, chemistory in an atomic scale (e.g., segregation) and so on. Fundamentals of microstructure formation (thermodynamics, kinetics, crystallography) are examined both theoretically and experimentally to clarify key factors for microstructure control. Another important aspect in our research is the improvement of mechanical property by microstructure manipulation.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Possibilities to establish new functions (e.g., superplasticity, shape memory/superelasticity) as well as superior mechanical properties (e.g., ultrahigh strength with high toughness/ductility) is also explored.

Institute for Materials Research
FURUHARA Tadashi, Professor PhD

[surface metrology]

Development of Sensors and Measuring Systems for Ultra-Precision Manufacturing and Nanomanufacturing

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The research is being focused on measurement of surface forms of precision workpieces and stage motions of precision machines, which are important items for ultra-precision manufacturing and nanomanufacturing. Optical sensors are being developed for measurement of angle and displacement, which are fundamental quantities for manufacturing. Technologies for improvement of the sensor sensitivity and bandwidth, reduction of the sensor size as well as new multi-axis sensing methods are being The research is being focused on measurement of surface forms of precision workpieces and stage motions of precision machines. Optical sensors are being developed for measurement of angle and displacement. A number of scanning-type measuring systems for precision measurement of surface forms and stage motions are also being developed. Error separation algorithms and systems for straightness and roundness, which are the most fundamental geometries treated in ultra-precision manufacturing, are being investigated. Novel systems based on scanning probe microscopy are under development for micro- and nano-structures as well as freeform optics in responding to new and important challenges from ultra-precision manufacturing and nanomanufacturing.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The multi-axis optical displacement and angle sensors developed in the laboratory are expected to measure motions of semiconductor/IC manufacturing and inspection equipment, precision machine tools, ultra-precision measuring instrument. The surface profile measurement systems are expected t play an important role in ultra-precision manufacturing and nanomanufacturing industries.

Department of Nanomechanics, Graduate School of Engineering
GAO Wei, Professor PhD

[Surface Modification]

Cavitation Peening

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Surface modification method to improve fatigue strength has been developed using cavitation impacts, which are normally causes severe damage in hydraulic machineries. The method was called "cavitation peening". In order to make clear the mechanism, a load controlled plate bending fatigue test machine was developed. It was proved by using the test machine that the threshold level of stress intensity factor was improved about 1.9 times by cavitation peening. The mitigation of hydrogen embrittlement by cavitation peening was also improved.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The cavitation peening can apply to component of automobile and forging die. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate School of Engineering
SOYAMA Hitoshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Surface science]

Surface scientific approach for developments in fuel cell's catalysts

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From catalytic perspective, molecular-level understanding of surface phenomena occurring at nano-sized metal (alloy) particle surfaces is a key for developing highly active and durable catalysts. Our experimental approach for studying catalysis is preparations of well-defined metals or alloy surfaces by using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) techniques. We routinely use UHV-MBE, surface vibrational spectroscopy (IR, Raman), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), electron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical (EC) voltammetry, gas-chromatography (GC) etc., and try to clarify the solid surface phenomena on atomic, molecular-levels. We believe our research results directly link to future eco-friendly society.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Environmental Studies
WADAYAMA Toshimasa, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Sustainability]

Study on Land Use Management and Residential Movement in Tsunami Affected Areas

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The study focused on areas affected by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, and clarified the impact of reconstruction projects on spatial transformation and residents' residential relocation, as well as residents' satisfaction with the projects. In the boundary area of architecture, urban planning, and landscape architecture, we combine qualitative research, such as participatory observation with sociological and local community perspectives, and quantitative research using data obtained in the field. I would like to explore better relationships between people and nature, and propose methods that lead to sustainable urban development.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

I have practical experience in post-disaster land use and workshops with local residents. I believe that they will be able to make use of their knowledge and experience in the pre-disaster reconstruction efforts in the areas that are expected to be affected by the disaster in the future.

Graduate school of Engineering
ARAKI Shoko, Assistant Professor Ph.D.

[Swine]

Development of Immunobiotic Evaluation System for Functional Feeds as a Livestock Animal Model

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Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family plays an important role in the defense through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or microorganisms-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs).
Some functional feed materials are thought to regulate intestinal immunity by contact and stimulation of epithelial cells and immunocompetent cells via PRRs in the gastrointestinal tract and induction of cytokine production. In this "new world" of feed immunology, however, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms of intestinal immunity because of lack of appropriate intestinal immunoassay system for livestock animals.
We have advanced application of originally established porcine and bovine intestinal epitheliocytes (PIE, BIE) cell lines (see photo) for evaluation of immunobiotics and immunogenics exerting anti-inflammatory responses both in PIE cell monolayer and co-culture system with porcine peyer's patch immune cells as a peyer's patch culture model (see illustration).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

This evaluation system may also contribute to elucidate immunoregulatory mechanism of immunobiotics and immunogenics mediated by pattern recognition receptors essential to future development of not only immunobiotic feeds but also vaccines using immunobiotics to prevent specific diseases. This can benefit mankind by offering immunobiotic feeds as a safer alternative to conventional antibiotic drug therapy.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
KITAZAWA Haruki, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[synchrotron radiation]

High-speed X-ray phase tomography with a millisecond-order temporal resolution

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We successfully realized millisecond-order X-ray phase tomography using a fringe-scanning method in grating-based X-ray interferometry. We obtained phase tomograms with a measurement time of 4.43 ms using a white synchrotron X-ray beam. The use of a fringe-scanning method enables us to achieve not only a higher spatial resolution but also a higher signal-to-noise ratio than that attained by the Fourier transform method. In addition, our approach can be applied to realize four-dimensional or high-throughput X-ray tomography for samples that can be rotated at a high speed.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM)
YASHIRO Wataru, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Synthetic Medicines]

Advanced Molecular Transformations by Organocatalysts

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The development of organic molecules which function as a catalyst has been extensively investigated to achieve selective and efficient transformation of organic molecules. Brønsted acids and bases are commonly employed as the catalyst in synthetic organic chemistry. To aim at their functionalization, axially chiral phosphoric acids and axially chiral guanidine bases have been developed as chiral Brønsted acid and base catalysts, respectively. A variety of optically active compounds has been synthesized through the development of highly stereoselective reactions using these catalysts.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The development of chiral Brønsted acid and base catalysts has been accomplished as recoverable and reusable organocatalysts and highly stereoselective molecular transformations have been established using these catalysts. The present methodology is applicable to process chemistry in preparing medicines and relevant compounds on the basis of the selective and efficient molecular transformations thus developed with reduction of the waste material.

Graduate School of Science
TERADA Masahiro, Professor PhD

[Synthetic Organic Chemistry]

Development of New Reactions Using Organocatalyst

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Organocatalyst is a synthetically useful catalyst in synthetic organic chemistry, because of the several merits. We have been investigating the development of new and efficient organocatalysts derived from proline. We have already reported the diphenylprolinol silyl ether, which is called as a Jorgensen-Hayashi catalyst, and siloxyproline, which is effective in the presence of water. We have also developed several practical asymmetric catalytic reactions based on the organocatalysts. We also applied these reactions to the total synthesis of natural products and drugs. We have already synthesized Tamiflu in one-pot reaction, and prostaglandin E1 methyl ester via three one-pot procedure.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our newly developed reactions using organocatalysis can be widely used for synthesis of medicines, agrichemicals, and chemical products.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science
HAYASHI Yujiro, Professor Doctor of Science

[systemic chemotherapy]

Development of an intranodal administration method

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(1) The amount of anticancer drug required to treat one metastatic lymph node is 1/1,000 to 1/10,000 of the systemic dose.
(2) The drug can be administered into the lymph node under ultrasound guidance.
(3) An international patent has been filed for the solvent of the administered drug.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

1. Treatment and prophylactic therapy of affiliated lymph nodes in head and neck cancer, breast cancer, etc.
2. Pharmaceutical companies aiming to develop drugs by drug repositioning and generics
3. Medical device manufacturers aiming to develop a dosing system

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering
KODAMA Tetsuya, Professor PhD (Engineering), PhD (Medicine)