Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"S" Keywords - 160 Result(s)

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[solar cell]

R&D in Semiconductor Materials and their Device Applications Bringing System Evolutions

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1. Development of Distributed Feedback (DFB) Laser Diodes (LD) widely used in optical communications systems realizing a highly information-based society. This LD increases the transmission capacity by 25,000 times per fiber which means the bit rate of 10Tb/s.

2. Nitride semiconductors famous for blue light emitting diodes.
(a) Proposal of InGaAlN system considering device applications in 1989
(b) Success in growth of single crystalline InGaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in 1989
(c) Prediction of band-gap energy (Eg) of InN much smaller than the values reported in 1980s and its   experimental confirmation in 2002
(d) Observation of photoluminescence from InGaN in 1991
(e) Prediction of phase separation in InGaAlN in 1997

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

DFB-LD: Fabrication of periodic structure with submicron scale, Epitaxial growth of semiconductor films on the substrate with fine structures, LD fabrication process, device evaluation, and device simulation

Nitride Semiconductors: MOVPE growth, N-polar growth, Evaluation of semiconductor materials, Fabrication of light-emitting devices, solar cells, and high-power transistors

New Industry Creation Hatchery Center
MATSUOKA Takashi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Solar cells]

Development of Interconnect Materials and Processes for High Performance and High Reliability Electric Devices

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Electronic products can be operated not only by semiconductors but also by metal interconnections attached to the semiconductors. Required properties for the metal interconnections are ohmic contact, diffusion barrier property, adhesion with semiconductors, and low resistivity, corrosion resistance, process reliability. Our group has committed ourselves to develop new metals and processes to meet the needs of wide-ranged device producers with consideration of cost performance. Topics of our research include (1) Cu alloys to self-form a diffusion barrier layer in multilayer interconnection of Si devices, (2) Cu alloys to form a reaction-doping layer in IGZO oxide semiconductors, (3) Nb alloys to achieve mechanical and thermal reliability with good ohmic property for SiC power devices, (4) Cu alloys for transparent conductive oxide such as ITO, (5) screen-printable Cu paste lines for solar cells, etc..

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our research efforts are targeted at metallization and interconnections for advanced LSI, flat panel displays, touch panels, power modules, solar cells, and other electronic devices. Collaborators include material producers, equipment vendors, and device producers in the entire value chain of electronic products.

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering
KOIKE Junichi, Professor PhD

[Solar thermal power]

Development of Renewable Energy Systems for Sustainable Development Society

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Development of renewable energy systems as well as research on high efficient energy conversion systems is a key technology to solve the global-scale environmental destruction and energy problems. We are working on the research on the advanced technology of renewable energy such as solar energy and hydrogen. Topics of research are two of the following roughly separately. 
(1) Development of highly effective thermal energy systems and energy saving systems by using spectral control of thermal radiation. 
(2) Aiming at the achievement of the hydrogen energy society, we develop new energy conversion devices based on solid state ionics, and perform feasible studies for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on mechanics of materials.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

High temperature solar absorption materials
High effieciency solar-termophotovoltaic (STPV) system
Small power source for mobile electric devices based on micro-SOFC
New energy harvesting devices in harsh environment

Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering
YUGAMI Hiroo, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Solid electrolytes]

Developing energy creation and saving materials

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Most innovations have been triggered by advent of new materials. We focus on to explore new inorganic materials and their synthesis routes on the basis of our knowledge about the material design and various materials processing technologies. We develop proton conducting phosphate glasses working at intermediate temperatures and narrow gap oxide semiconductors applicable in visible and NIR regions. Thin-film solar cells, fuel cells using those materials are also developing.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We focus on oxide semiconductors and proton conducting electrolytes and electrodes in order to apply them in solar cells, fuel cells, light-emitting devices. But, applicable area of our technologies is not limited in those applications.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM)
OMATA Takahisa, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Solid state physics]

Electronic properties of nanostructures and nanodevices

Features

1) We investigate interesting properties of nanostructures and develop materials and devices utilizing nanostructures.
2) We have techniques and skills on low-noise electric measurements, cryogenics, nanofabrication, and data informatics. We are open to new collaborations.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Research Institute of Electrical Communication
OTSUKA Tomohiro, Associate Professor Doctor of Science

[Solid-Liquid Interfaces]

Development of Nano-Interface Chemistry for Materials Sciences Using Surface Forces Measurement

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Our research aims at developing methods, including instrumentation, for characterizing surface (or interface) at the nano-meter level. Most of our research subjects are related to the surface forces measurement, which can directly monitor the interaction between two surfaces. We study phenomena occurring at the solid-liquid interface such as adsorption and structuring of liquids. We have developed the resonance shear measurement which is a sensitive method for evaluating properties of confined liquid for nano-rheology and tribology. Twin-path surface forces apparatus we developed enabled us to study wide variety of samples such as metals, ceramics and plastics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

These methods are applicable for characterizing lubricants, nano-materials, paints, sealants, and cosmetics. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
KURIHARA Kazue, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[solid-phase synthesis]

Synthesis of Biologically Active Cyclodepsipeptide Natural Products

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Cyclodepsipeptide natural products include optically active hydroxy acids as well as various unnatural amino acids and exhibit a variety of biological activity depending on the peptide sequence, chirality, and selection of the hydroxy acids. Structure-activity relationships of a synthetic library of natural products could give us significant information of not only biologically important moieties but also intact positions in the biologically active small molecules. On the basis of the former information, more potent compounds and/or peptide mimetics can be designed. The latter information can also be important for making a molecular probe that is used for exploration of a target molecule.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We study for combinatorial synthesis of natural product analogues using solid-phase.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
DOI Takayuki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Solid-state welding processes]

Design and control of new weld interface during welding of dissimilar materials

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Welding of dissimilar materials is an important process to manufacture the future structures and devices, but it is hard to produce the high-performance welds because the excessive reaction at the weld interface deteriorates the weld properties. Our group attempts to develop the new dissimilar welding process to yield the new interface with the aimed properties through design and control of interfacial reaction as well as usage of solid-state welding processes, such as friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We hope to have collaborative researches with willing companies for practical application of welding of dissimilar materials, including metal/metal and metal/thermoplastic composite, in transportation, infrastructure, and energy industries.

Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering
SATO Yutaka, Professor Ph.D.

[Solidification]

Advanced die casting process computing with solidification phenomena

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Die casting is a method of mass-producing high-precision castings in a short time by filling the mold with molten metal at high pressure and high speed. Since solidification is completed quickly under high pressure, various defects peculiar to die casting occur. Significantly, the casting cavity has a high incidence in die casting, and it is a factor that hinders the quality. Therefore, a numerical approach to the die casting process is expected to prevent these problems, and the information obtained from the numerical analysis is expected to be reflected in the casting plan to reduce the number of prototypes, the lead time to product development, and the cost. In this study, a multiphase flow analysis with solidification phenomena of molten aluminum inside mold was conducted for a high-pressure die casting process of the throttle body.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Automotive industry, Automotive suppliers, Foundry industry

Institute of Fluid Science
ISHIMOTO Jun, Professor Ph.D

[Solution chemistry]

Chemical imaging devices which operate in severe environments

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We developed both pH and Cl- imaging plates, which can visualize the pH and Cl- concentration on metal surfaces in acidic environments. The pH range is from 3.0 to 0.5, and Cl- concentration up to 4 M can be measured. Fluorescent dyes are successively used for pH and Cl- imaging in the field of biology, but their sensitivity tends to be insufficient in acidic and/or highly concentrated chloride solutions. A glass plate with a sol-gel sensing layer, which contains a pH indicator or a Cl- sensitive florescent dye was fabricated and validated using the solutions with various pH values and Cl- concentrations. Changes in the pH and Cl- distribution on stainless surface in an acidic environment were measured quantitatively.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The newly developed imaging plates can be used to investigate the mechanism of various chemical reactions, such as corrosion, which occurs in an acidic environment. Micro-flow imaging using our sensing technique will be a promising approach to understand the catalytic chemistry of metal surfaces.
強調

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering
MUTO Izumi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[solvent property]

Supercritical Fluid Technology Based on its Unique Properties

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We have investigated various physical properties of supercritical fluids and their mixture. The properties studied are density, viscosity, phase equilibria, solubility, etc. under high temperatures and pressures. Using these suprecritical fluid features, we have proposed their application technologies; such as extraction of natural resources, cleaning, drying, catalyst preparation, polymer processing, polymer recycling, biomass conversion and controlled delivery. The methodologies used are experiments, simulation and theretical ones.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Cleaning Technology: precision machinery component, optical component, etc.
Extraction of Natural Resources: food, supplements, aroma.
Polymer Processing: functional resin, electronic component, etc.

Graduate School of Engineering
INOMATA Hiroshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Spacecraft]

Development of Electronic Instruments (Radio, Infrared, Optical, and Digital), Extensible Unit, and Embedded Software for Spacecraft

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We have performed the development of the radio wave receivers, radars, infrared & optical cameras / spectrometers, and digital instruments for various space projects. (Ex. KAGUYA [Lunar orbiter], BepiColombo [Mercury orbiter], Hisaki [EUV space telescope], Reimei [Small aurora-observatory], Arase [radiation belt], JUICE [Jupiter], the International Space Station [atmospheric camera IMAP], several sounding rockets and high-altitude balloon experiments.)

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

By historical reasons, the developments of these analog / digital circuits, FPGA, embedded software, extensible mechanics have mainly been with companies and engineers in Kanto and Chubu areas. We hope to find the counter companies / persons in Sendai / Miyagi / Tohoku areas.

Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center
KASABA Yasumasa, Professor PhD (Electronics)

[Spacecraft Onboard Avionics and Mission Instruments]

Design and Development of 50 kg-class Micro Satellites

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We design and develop micro satellites in a format of 50 cm cubic size and 50 kg mass. We have developed the first and second micro satellites of Tohoku University, named “RISING” and “RISING-2”, launched by using JAXA’s H-IIA rocket vehicle in January 2009 and May 2014, respectively. Both satellites are operated from our ground station in the university. Particularly, RISING-2 has succeeded in capturing high precision color images of the Earth's surface at a spatial resolution of 5m, the highest in the world among 50kg-class satellites. Now the third micro satellite for international science mission is under the development. In addition, we are active in nano satellite development. The first nano-sat “RAIKO” in a 10 by 10 by 20 cm format was launched from the International Space Station in 2012. More nano-sats are under the development.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We would like to make innovation in space business by introducing a new paradigm for rapid and low cost development of space systems for various missions of remote sensing, earth observation, and space exploration. We have rich experience in the development of spacecraft bus systems, onboard avionics systems and mission instruments. Collaborations with technology and business partners are welcome.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
YOSHIDA Kazuya, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Sparse Modeling]

Optimizing everything / Optimal Society

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Aiming at developing practical quantum optimization technology known as quantum annealing, we are working on exploring basic technologies that can overcome the limitations and applications in collaboration with multiple companies. The advantage of the method is that it can be used simply by formulating a cost function that draws the goal to be optimized once, but we are not limited to the original method. We extend it by considering a much easier problem, sequential optimization by learning, black box optimization, etc.. In particular, it is being applied to automated driving, logistics in factories, and evacuation guidance during disasters.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Applications to route search problems such as automatic driving of various vehicles, evacuation route guidance at the time of disaster, process scheduling and a large number of combination problems. We can provide a solution to combinatorial optimization in each industry. (Transportation / distribution, manufacturing, materials, drug discovery, etc.)

Graduate School of Information Sciences, Applied Information Sciences, Information and Applied Technology, Physical Fluctuomatics
OHZEKI Masayuki, Professor Doctor of Science

[special needs education]

Applying Blended Learning to Special Needs Education

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I am interested in the human communication process and the man-machine interaction in some educational situation. I conducted interviews, questionnaires, behavior observations and experiments of students with special educational needs, their parents and teachers to investigate the needs, accessibility, usability, efficacy and its factors of blended learning and digital learning materials.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The outcomes of our research will make contribution to the design and development of teaching/learning materials and methods.

Graduate School of Educational Informatics Research Division
KUMAI Masayuki, Professor PhD

[SPECT]

Development of Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

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The main research subject of our group is developing material purification methods, crystal growth methods and detector fabrication technologies for compound semiconductor radiation detectors. Our group intensely studies a compound semiconductor, thallium bromide (TlBr), for fabrication of gamma-ray detectors for the advanced radiation applications. The attractive physical properties of TlBr lie in its high atomic number (Tl: 81, Br: 35), high density (7.56 g/cm3) and wide bandgap (2.68 eV). Due to the high atomic number and high density, TlBr exhibits high photon stopping power. The wide bandgap of TlBr permits the device low-noise operation at and above room temperatures.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our group focuses on development of compound semiconductor radiation detectors for advanced radiation applications including ultra-high resolution PET systems, ultra-high resolution SPECT systems, photon counting CT systems and Compton cameras. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering
HITOMI Keitaro, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering

Radiological Medical Infomatics

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PET and SPECT have very high sensitivity to detect molecule by means of radiation detection, and are considered to be excellent tools for molecular imaging. We are studying and developing data analysis techniques for PET and SPECT data. Using our approaches, we can analyze data in quantitative manner, and obtain physiological functions in living organism.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Pharmaceutical companies who are interested in using PET to evaluate efficacy of new drug. Companies which are related to medical informatics, medical equipments.

Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center
WATABE Hiroshi, Professor PhD

[spin dynamics]

Spintronics Devices and Materials

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Spintronics is a technology utilizing electron spin which provided magnetic sensor, nonvolatile magnetic memory, and so on. Our studies are as below.

Noble & Rare-earth free magnetic films with large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We achieved to develop various Mn-bases alloy films exhibiting high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (Fig.1 ).
THz range observation of magnetization motion. We achieved to detect a motion of magnetization using pulse laser in time domain (Fig. 2).
Novel organic spin devices. We achieved to fabricate hybrid junction consisting of an organic layer sandwiched by two inorganic magnetic layers and to observe magnetoresistance effect.
Tunnel Magnetoresistive devices: We are developing TMR devices with Mn-Ga alloys films (Fig.3 ).

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Magnetic memory and storage. Microwave and Terahertz wave. Magnetic sensors.
We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of these devices and materials in industry.

WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research
MIZUKAMI Shigemi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[spinal cord injury]

Induction of Schwann cells from human mesenchymal stem cells and their application to spinal cord injury and demyelinating diseases

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Bone marrow stromal cells have great advantages since they are already applied to patients either by auto- or allo-transplantations, can be harvested in large numbers (10 million cells within several weeks) as adherent cells from bone marrow aspirates, and are with low risk of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, marrow bank is available. Likewise, mesenchymal cells harvested from umbilical cord are also easily accessible from cord bank and are a good source of mesenchymal stem cells. We have established a system to induce functional Schwann cells (peripheral glia) from human bone marrow stromal cells and umbilical cord mesenchymal cells by treating cells with a series of reagents and cytokines. This induction system successfully generates Schwann cells with very high efficiency (~97%). They were confirmed to elicit neural regeneration in peripheral nerve damages and spinal cord injury (Eur, J. Neurosci, 2001; J. Neurosurg, 2004, J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol, 2005, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2007; Tissue Eng., 2011). The efficiency and safety of induced Schwann cells were demonstrated in monkey by 1 year follow up (Exp. Neurol., 2010). Importantly, induced cells not only elicited neural regeneration in both peripheral and central nervous system, but also contributed to functional recovery by restoring myelin and saltatory conduction. Therefore, these cells are expected to be effective to demyelinating diseases as well. We hope to collaborate with companies and research groups who are willing to utilize our system.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Medicine
DEZAWA Mari, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[Spintoronics]

Electrical Spin Generation and Manipulation in Semiconductors

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Since spin orbit interactions caused by the structural inversion asymmetry and the bulk inversion asymmetry induce an effective magnetic field in III-Vsemiconductor heterostructures, it is possible to realize the new functional devices based on the electrical control of the spin precession. We study the electrical spin generation by using spatial modulation of spin orbit interaction, which demonstrates Stern-Gerlach spin filter in semiconductors, and research ultra-fast spin dynamics by using time resolved Kerr rotation microscopy. We also investigate a spin MOSFET based on the perpendicular magnetic materials and electric-field induced magnetization control. We can reduce the leak current and the signal delay in the logic circuit. With the non-volatility of the ferromagnetic source and drain electrodes, random access memory is also enabled by using the spin MOSFET structure.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Target application will be low power logic devices and non-volatile memory based on electron spins and also future metal-based spintronic devices.

Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering
KOHDA Makoto, Professor Doctor of Engineering