"S" Keywords - 149 Result(s)

 S

[Saccharomyces cerevisiae]

Yeast models of familial Alzheimer disease to screen for gamma-secretase inhibitors and modulators

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特徴・独自性
  • Using the yeast transcriptional activator Gal4 system, we reconstituted the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), responsible for Alzheimer disease. Aβ production could be monitored by the positive growth in the selection media or by the reporter enzyme (β-Gal). Utilizing familial Alzheimer disease mutants, we established a system to screen for mutations and chemicals that modulate gamma secretase activity and reduce toxic Aβ42.
実用化イメージ

Our yeast system can be used to screen for chemicals, natural products, food ingredients, genes, and mutations that modulate γ-secretase activity and block Aβ42 production specifically. We hope to conduct collaboration research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Researchers

Graduate School of Agricultural Science

Eugene Futai

[Safety design]

Combustion and Atomization Technology in High-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions

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特徴・独自性
  • Combustion is a complex phenomenon composed of multi-dimensional dynamics of temperature, concentration, velocity, and chemical reactions. Advanced combustion technologies are essential for solving the environmental and energy issues. Our laboratory has a high-pressure combustion test facility which is a unique experimental facility in the world. Research projects have originality, especially in the field of high-pressure combustion and laser diagnostics, and focus on not only aerospace engineering and energy engineering including new fuel technology but also atomization technology and safety operations of chemical plants mostly operated at high pressure.
実用化イメージ

Potential collaborations are in the research fields of aerospace propulsions, automobile engines, power generations and chemical plants, in terms of development of gas turbine combustors for various fuels, generation and control of fuel atomizers, laser diagnostics of combustion and safety design of chemical reactors.

Researchers

Institute of Fluid Science

Hideaki Kobayashi

[Sanskrit]

Religion, language, society, and life in ancient India

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特徴・独自性
実用化イメージ

Researchers

Graduate School of Arts and Letters

Naoko Nishimura

[SARS-CoV-2]

Development and evaluation of various inhibitors and disinfectants for SARS-CoV-2

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特徴・独自性
  • Using the infectious SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2), we are evaluating and developing new therapeutic drug candidates as well as evaluating disinfectants. Further analyses such as mechanism of action and resistance may be applicable. Other pathogens, including influenza virus and drug-resistant bacteria, will be examined upon request and discussion. Through joint and collaborative research with domestic and overseas pharmaceutical companies and related companies, we have experience of their clinical application including basic research.
実用化イメージ

We support development and evaluation of various inhibitors and disinfectants for variants of SARS-CoV-2 as well as wild type.

Researchers

International Research Institute of Disaster Science

Eiichi Kodama

[satellite cells]

Induction of skeletal muscle cells from human mesenchymal stem cells and their application to muscle degeneration

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特徴・独自性
  • Bone marrow stromal cells have great advantages since they are already applied to patients either by auto- or allo-transplantations, can be harvested in large numbers (10 million cells within several weeks) as adherent cells from bone marrow aspirates, and are with low risk of tumorigenesis. We have established a system to induce skeletal muscle cells from human bone marrow stromal cells by treating cells with cytokines followed by Notch intracellular domain gene plasmid introduction. This induction system successfully generates skeletal muscle lineage cells comprised of muscle stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as myoblasts and myotubes. Transplantation of satellite cells and myoblasts were effective for muscle regeneration (Science, 2005). Importantly, induced satellite cells integrated into satellite cell location and continuously contributed to muscle regeneration. Our research team is now pursuing the safety and efficiency of these induced cells by using canine muscle degeneration models. We hope to collaborate with companies and research groups who are willing to utilize our system.
実用化イメージ

Researchers

Graduate School of Medicine

Mari Dezawa

[SAXS]

X-Ray Phase Imaging for High-Sensitive Non-Destructive Testing

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特徴・独自性
  • Conventional X-ray imaging methods that rely on X-ray attenuation cannot generate clear contrast in the observation of low-density materials such as polymers consisting of low-Z elements. However, the sensitivity to the materials can be improved drastically by X-ray phase imaging that detects X-ray refraction caused by the materials. X-ray Talbot or Talbot-Lau interferometry consisting of X-ray transmission gratings is now constructed in laboratories for X-ray phase imaging. X-ray phase tomography is also realized, enabling high-sensitive three-dimensional observation.
  • X-ray phase imaging can be utilized for X-ray non-destructive testing of industrial products and baggage that cannot be checked conventionally.
実用化イメージ

We aim at appending a phase-contrast mode to micro-CT apparatuses and developing screening apparatuses in production lines.

Researchers

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials

Atsushi Momose

[scanning probe microscopy]

Biological Application of Scanning Probe Microscope

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特徴・独自性
  • We have invented a unique method to non-invasively evaluate the quality of individual mammalian embryos based on oxygen consumption. A Pt microelectrode was scanned near the single embryo sample to obtain oxygen concentration profile. Respiration activity of single embryo was estimated based on spherical diffusion theory. Further, it was found that the respiration activities of individual embryos corresponded the developmental potential of the embryos. Independently, we have developed a procedure of mRNA quantification from single-cell based on SPM featuring multi-functional probes. Next, we are going to combine the two methods mentioned above for quality control of mammalian embryos and embryonic stem cells.
実用化イメージ

Our methods will be applied for assisted reprodictive technoloy (ART), pancreatic islet transplantation, or animal breeding.

Researchers

Graduate School of Engineering

Hitoshi Shiku

[SCC]

Fabrication of Imitative Stress Corrosion Cracking Specimens for the Development of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques

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特徴・独自性
  • The emergence of stress corrosion cracking is one of the most important issues from the viewpoint of aging management and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There is a large discrepancy between stress corrosion cracking and other cracks such as fatigue cracks from the viewpoint of nondestructive testing and evaluations, which requires suitable specimens containing stress corrosion cracking for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques and also for personnel training. However, artificially introducing stress corrosion cracking needs large cost and long time. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out that such articial stress corrosion cracking is not always similar to natural ones. On the basis of the background above, we develop a method to fabricate "imitative" stress corrosion cracking specimens using diffusion bonding.
実用化イメージ

The method enables one to introduce a region whose response is almost identical to actual stress corrosion cracking from the viewpoint of nondestructive testing. Whereas the dimension of the region is accurately controllable, the method requires much less cost and time comparing the conventional ones using corrosive environment. Patent is already applied for.

Researchers

Graduate School of Engineering

Noritaka Yusa

[Science Communication]

Philosophy of Science and Technology, Science and Technology Studies (STS)

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特徴・独自性
  • My research area is mainly phenomenology, philosophy of technology, and applied ethics (engineering ethics etc.). Technological Artifacts mediate human activities. So designing artifacts is in itself an ethical behavior. Analysing the ontological structure of the artifacts, describing the epistemological propcess of desingning activities, evaluating the social and ethical influence of artifacts are main issues in philosophy of technology. On the basis of such philosophical investigations, we can develope ethical studies concerining how engineerss, companies can recognize ethical issues in a networks of meanings , how they can make ethical decision among engineers and users.
実用化イメージ

I hope to conduct cooperative research on ethical education of engineers, as well as on human-machine interaction.

Researchers

Graduate School of Arts and Letters

Kiyotaka Naoe

[Scientific Simulation]

Supercomputing for enabling large-scale advanced simulations

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特徴・独自性
  • As modern supercomputers are getting larger and more complicated, it is not so easy to exploit their potential performance. It is necessary to develop a simulation code with considering various factors for both hardware and software reasons, and hence expert knowledge and experiences about supercomputing are often needed to achieve high actual performance. Our research interests focus on shaping future supercomputing systems and their applications, especially system software technologies for effectively using the future supercomputers. Also we are always exploring how to make good use of the state-of-the-art hardware and software technologies in order to enable unprecedented-scale and more advanced simulations.
  • From beginning (apply for use of our supercomputer) to end (get a solution), we can consistently support developing large-scale practical simulation, which is feasible only by using the supercomputer. As a supercomputing center, we have a long history of parallelizing and accelerating a lot of practical simulation programs. In addition, we are looking for research collaborators who are interested in streamlining and/or facilitating large-scale scientific software development.
実用化イメージ

Researchers

Cyberscience Center

Hiroyuki Takizawa

[scintillator crystals]

Development of Novel Scintillator and Piezoelectric Crystals

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特徴・独自性
  • Our research target is mainly focused on the topic of development of novel scintillator crystals, piezoelectric crystals, growth technology, characterization and its device application.
  • We design and synthesize new materials from a view point of Crystal Chemistry, and investigate their structure and physical properties. We also study on photo-detector, as suitable photo-detector fully contribute to get maximum signal from scintillator. This activity is very important to realize practical application of our developed materials. Recently, piezoelectric material and high melting temperature alloy project is also started.
実用化イメージ

For the purpose of "real" contribution to human culture, we are always carrying out our research activity considering the industrial application. This point is unique feature of our attitude toward science.

Researchers

Institute for Materials Research

Akira Yoshikawa

[Screening]

Development of the next generation anti-HIV agents

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特徴・独自性
  • HIV infection is one of most serious concern in infectious diseases. We will perform anti-HIV assays for unmet medical needs in control of HIV infections with established novel assays. We have developed reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has novel mechanism of inhibition, translocation-inhibition (J Biol Chem, 2009). Dr Kodama participated in the primary screening and development of a new HIV integrase inhibitor, elvitegravir (J Virol 2009), and a unique reverse transcriptase inhibitor, islatravir, which phase III clinical trials by the Merck & Co., Inc. will complete, soon. We have a representative resistant HIV strain-library for anti-HIV screening and several target oriented high through-put screening systems.
実用化イメージ

We can establish high through-put screening for new targets, so please consult with us individually. We are open to joint development requiring BSL3/P3 experimental facilities and academic guidance including other microorganisms.

Researchers

International Research Institute of Disaster Science

Eiichi Kodama

[SDGs]

Prediction and evaluation of future thermal and wind environments based on CFD, and planning of urban environments adaptable to future climate

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特徴・独自性
  • Numerical simulations of the physical environment of urban outdoor spaces are conducted to predict the physical environment, such as temperature, humidity, wind, and pollutant concentration, and field measurements are conducted to understand the actual physical environment. In addition, the future outdoor environments and heat stroke risks due to global warming are predicted and evaluated.
    Furthermore, the impacts of urban morphology (building shape and layout, street trees, etc.) on the adaptation to severe heat in summer and rare typhoons and floods are evaluated quantitatively.
実用化イメージ

Numerical analysis is used to quantitatively evaluate the "merits and demerits" of designing buildings, planning city blocks and urban areas, and introducing various heat control technologies on the wider thermal environment and the formation of wind ventilation paths, as well as the adverse effects of typhoons and other disasters. The materials for making decisions on whether or not to introduce these technologies are provided.

Researchers

Graduate School of Engineering

Yasuyuki Ishida

[Secret sharing]

Blockchain-based Approachs for High Secure P2P-type Decentralized Cloud Storage and Practical Smart Contract for Trading Personal Data

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特徴・独自性
  • We are developing a decentralized P2P (Peer to Peer) type cloud storage that realizes innovative level of security by use of surplus storages of P2P nodes with the Blockchain technology. The developed storage can avoid the risk of large-scale information leakage of stored data due to the weakness of the central server. By using our cryptographic currency for rewards and usage fees in the storage, fair storage usage of all users can also be achieved.
  • In addition, We are developing a unique smart contract technology for practical decentralized trading of personal data among an unspecified number of users.
実用化イメージ

We hope to conduct collaborative researches with companies developing Bitcoin 2.0 type application (e.g. smart contract, Fintech) based on the Blockchain technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Medical Database for practical use.

Researchers

Center for Data-driven Science and Artificial Intelligence

Masao Sakai

[security]

Blockchain-based Approachs for High Secure P2P-type Decentralized Cloud Storage and Practical Smart Contract for Trading Personal Data

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特徴・独自性
  • We are developing a decentralized P2P (Peer to Peer) type cloud storage that realizes innovative level of security by use of surplus storages of P2P nodes with the Blockchain technology. The developed storage can avoid the risk of large-scale information leakage of stored data due to the weakness of the central server. By using our cryptographic currency for rewards and usage fees in the storage, fair storage usage of all users can also be achieved.
  • In addition, We are developing a unique smart contract technology for practical decentralized trading of personal data among an unspecified number of users.
実用化イメージ

We hope to conduct collaborative researches with companies developing Bitcoin 2.0 type application (e.g. smart contract, Fintech) based on the Blockchain technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Medical Database for practical use.

Researchers

Center for Data-driven Science and Artificial Intelligence

Masao Sakai

[Seebeck effect]

Development of Potential Thermoelectric Materials

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特徴・独自性
  • We have been exploring novel thermoelectric materials. Functions of a solid substance primarily depend on the electronic structure, directly derived from its crystal structure. Through high-quality structure analyses using neutron and X-ray diffraction, combined with first-principles calculations, we have been fabricating materials with desired functions. To date, more than 40 novel materials have been discovered based on our guiding principles.
実用化イメージ

For developing future device technologies, challenges on thin-film thermionic multilayers and organic thermoelectric materials are currently underway.

Researchers

Graduate School of Engineering

Yuzuru Miyazaki

[seed]

Molecular studies on new resources for hybrid rice breeding

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特徴・独自性
  • F1 hybrid breeding is one of the most advanced techniques for production of cultivars with higher yield and desirable traits of both parents. Most of hybrid rice utilize cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and fertility restoration system. We develop a Tohoku University-original CW-type CMS and fertility restorer line and study their molecular mechanism. The CW-type cytoplasm enables indica rice cultivars to be CMS, which could not be achieved by other known cytoplasm.
実用化イメージ

Hybrid rice has an average 30% yield advantage over inbred lines, and is cultivated on 13% of the world rice fields. Our study provides a new and original resource for hybrid rice breeding for globalization of rice industry.

Researchers

Graduate School of Agricultural Science

Kinya Toriyama

Improvement of Seed Production by Using Reproductive Trait in Crops, Especially, Rice and Cruciferous Crops

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概要

The recent spate of extreme weather events is threatening to reduce crop seed and fruit production. We have identified a catalog of genes that respond under low and high temperature stress, and will construct a system that enables production under temperature stress through genome editing and other methods.

従来技術との比較

In addition to conventionally used genetic recombination methods, genome editing technology has made it possible to modify genes that can be used for practical purposes.

特徴・独自性
  • Crops are important for food, environment recovery, energy production, and amenity activity for human being. For improvement of crop seed production, the breeding of crops having environmental stress, is important. Especially the developmental stage from pollination to fertilization is quite weak for these environmental stresses. Thus, by breeding of reproductive trait, we will establish the high productivity and quality of crop seeds. From our research, we found several stress-tolerant genes. We already started the research by both basic and applied level.
実用化イメージ

For application, we evaluated by taking prize for application in 2001. And our basic data has been published in international Journal, "Nature" and "Science". If anyone is interested in these genes, we hope to conduct to collaborative research for establishing the useful breeding lines.

Researchers

Graduate School of Life Sciences

Masao Watanabe

[Seismically Isolated Structures]

[Seizure]

Development of a Numerical Prediction System for Sliding Part Wear and Seizure Occurrence Portions

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概要

Focusing on the lubricant film flow with phase change between the engine piston pin and connecting rod small end, we developed a new multiphase fluid-structure coupled analysis method that takes into account elastic deformation of the structure and flow path changes and developed a simulation prediction method for tribological properties under high load conditions. The simulation prediction method for tribological properties under high load conditions has been created. As a result, we succeeded in simulation prediction of the wear/seizure generating areas in sliding parts. We discovered that the peculiar deformation behavior of the components is the cause of wear/seizure.

従来技術との比較

It has been thought that computational prediction is impossible to verify the wear and seizure locations in fluid lubrication. Still, this study succeeded in the simulation prediction of wear and seizure locations in sliding parts.

特徴・独自性
  • Numerical prediction of the wear and seizure locations in the sliding parts of engine piston pins was successfully performed.
  • The bow-like deformation of the piston pin was identified as the cause of mechanical contact and seizure at the connecting rod edge.
  • A three-dimensional multiphase fluid-structure coupled analysis method has been successfully developed, considering the piston pin's elastic deformation and connecting rod and thin-film cavitation1 lubrication with unsteady flow path changes.
実用化イメージ

This research method applies to automotive engines and all sliding component elements using fluid lubrication. It contributes to damage prediction and the development of safety guidelines for transportation and industrial machinery components, enabling the optimal design of components.

Researchers

Institute of Fluid Science

Jun Ishimoto