Tohoku University. Research Profiles

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"S" Keywords - 167 Result(s)

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[Saccharomyces cerevisiae]

Yeast models of familial Alzheimer disease to screen for gamma-secretase inhibitors and modulators

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Using the yeast transcriptional activator Gal4 system, we reconstituted the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), responsible for Alzheimer disease. Aβ production could be monitored by the positive growth in the selection media or by the reporter enzyme (β-Gal). Utilizing familial Alzheimer disease mutants, we established a system to screen for mutations and chemicals that modulate gamma secretase activity and reduce toxic Aβ42.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our yeast system can be used to screen for chemicals, natural products, food ingredients, genes, and mutations that modulate γ-secretase activity and block Aβ42 production specifically. We hope to conduct collaboration research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate school of Agricultural Science
FUTAI, Eugene, Associate Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[Safeguard]

Reactor Operation Monitoring by Neutrinos

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Neutrino is an elementary particle which is produced in beta decays of fission products. Instantaneous neutrino flux from nuclear reactor is proportional to the operation power and its long term decrease per thermal power is related to burn up of the fuel. Reactor operation monitoring by neutrino is one of the candidates of IAEA novel technology program. Research Center for Neutrino Physics is developing a reactor operation monitor by making use of technologies of neutrino detection for elementary particle physics.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

If a neutrino detector is installed at a reactor, monitoring of reactor operation is possible independent from the current system. Practical tests will be necessary for neutrino detector R&D at operating reactors and cooperation from electric power companies is necessary.

Research Center for Neutrino Science
SUEKANE, Fumihiko, Professor PhD

[Safety design]

Combustion and Atomization Technology in High-Pressure Gas Turbine Conditions

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Combustion is a complex phenomenon composed of multi-dimensional dynamics of temperature, concentration, velocity, and chemical reactions. Advanced combustion technologies are essential for solving the environmental and energy issues. Our laboratory has a high-pressure combustion test facility which is a unique experimental facility in the world. Research projects have originality, especially in the field of high-pressure combustion and laser diagnostics, and focus on not only aerospace engineering and energy engineering including new fuel technology but also atomization technology and safety operations of chemical plants mostly operated at high pressure.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Potential collaborations are in the research fields of aerospace propulsions, automobile engines, power generations and chemical plants, in terms of development of gas turbine combustors for various fuels, generation and control of fuel atomizers, laser diagnostics of combustion and safety design of chemical reactors.

High Speed Reacting Flow Laboratory, Institute of Fluid Science
KOBAYASHI, Hideaki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Sanskrit]

Religion, language, society, and life in ancient India

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Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Faculty of Arts and Letters
NISHIMURA, Naoko, Associate Professor Doctor of Philosophy

[SAR]

Radar Remote Sensing

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We are developing new electromagnetic methodologies including radar and electromagnetic induction techniques, applying to natural resources survey and environmental monitoring. Currently, we are working for topics such as space borne and air borne microwave remote sensing sensors (SAR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electromagnetic Induction methods (Metal detector) and their applications to subsurface sensing and humanitarian demining, and borehole radar for hydro geology. One of our sensors, ALIS which is a GPR system for land mine detection has been successfully operated in real mine field in Cambodia. These technologies using applied electromagnetics can be applied to other fields. We are seeking for industries which have interests in subsurface sensing and detection.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

•Development and Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR ) , EMI methods
(Ground water, soil moisture, landmine, explosive detection, archaeological survey, NDI)
Space borne and air borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Environmental monitoring, identification of vegetation, identification of targets)
Development and Application of Ground Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-SAR) (Land slide monitoring, Tsunami, NDI)

Center for Northeast Asian Studies
SATO, Motoyuki, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Saving energy]

Photo-Induced Characteristics of TiO2 Prepared by Anodic Oxidation

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Ti anodizing technique has been offered for coloring the surface of Ti, and its mechanism is understood by light interference varied with the oxide thickness. A characteristic of this study is to control the crystallinity of the oxide, and its originality is to provide photo-induced characteristics to Ti and its alloys by controlling the electrochemical conditions differed from that of coloration technology. This study is aimed for controlling the surface of Ti by using a simple and easy, inexpensive technique and to fabricate high functional titanium materials.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Related to practical applications, it is considered as a use for environmental purification such as deodorization and water purification, biomaterial and antibacterial and structural titanium.

Institute for Materials Research
MASAHASHI, Naoya, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[SAXS]

X-Ray Phase Imaging for High-Sensitive Non-Destructive Testing

Features

Conventional X-ray imaging methods that rely on X-ray attenuation cannot generate clear contrast in the observation of low-density materials such as polymers consisting of low-Z elements. However, the sensitivity to the materials can be improved drastically by X-ray phase imaging that detects X-ray refraction caused by the materials. X-ray Talbot or Talbot-Lau interferometry consisting of X-ray transmission gratings is now constructed in laboratories for X-ray phase imaging. X-ray phase tomography is also realized, enabling high-sensitive three-dimensional observation.
X-ray phase imaging can be utilized for X-ray non-destructive testing of industrial products and baggage that cannot be checked conventionally.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We aim at appending a phase-contrast mode to micro-CT apparatuses and developing screening apparatuses in production lines.

Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials
MOMOSE, Atsushi, Professor Dr.

[SCC]

Fabrication of Imitative Stress Corrosion Cracking Specimens for the Development of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques

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The emergence of stress corrosion cracking is one of the most important issues from the viewpoint of aging management and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There is a large discrepancy between stress corrosion cracking and other cracks such as fatigue cracks from the viewpoint of nondestructive testing and evaluations, which requires suitable specimens containing stress corrosion cracking for the development of nondestructive testing and evaluation techniques and also for personnel training. However, artificially introducing stress corrosion cracking needs large cost and long time. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out that such articial stress corrosion cracking is not always similar to natural ones. On the basis of the background above, we develop a method to fabricate "imitative" stress corrosion cracking specimens using diffusion bonding.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The method enables one to introduce a region whose response is almost identical to actual stress corrosion cracking from the viewpoint of nondestructive testing. Whereas the dimension of the region is accurately controllable, the method requires much less cost and time comparing the conventional ones using corrosive environment. Patent is already applied for.

Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering , Graduate School of Engineering
YUSA, Noritaka, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering

[School Education]

ICT Use by Teachers and Students in the Classrooms of Elementary and Secondary Schools

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My research focuses on ICT use in the classrooms of elementary and secondary schools in Japan.
When we consider introducing technologies to the classrooms, particularly for the compulsory education in public schools, there are "inevitable issues" around consistency with the educational mission of academic development of school students, practicability and sustainability of the use of technologies for busy teachers, cost economy, and equity in the public education.
My research is characterized by its direction toward empirical approach to the ICT use in consideration of these issues.
In the past, I have been engaged in (1) a research that found the most accepted ICT among teachers was a document camera and the way teachers use it was dependent on each teacher's teaching style, (2) a research on the technology that takes fewer man-hours to develop digital textbooks and other contents, and (3) a development of e-learning materials with which elementary school students can learn key board typing.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

My research can be applied to a development of teaching support tools for elementary and secondary school teachers which can be used in the classroom and a consulting service to assist development of digital teaching materials for school students.

Graduate School of Information Sciences
HORITA, Tatsuya, Professor

[Science Communication]

Philosophy of Science and Technology, Science and Technology Studies (STS)

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My research area is mainly phenomenology, philosophy of technology, and applied ethics (engineering ethics etc.). Technological Artifacts mediate human activities. So designing artifacts is in itself an ethical behavior. Analysing the ontological structure of the artifacts, describing the epistemological propcess of desingning activities, evaluating the social and ethical influence of artifacts are main issues in philosophy of technology. On the basis of such philosophical investigations, we can develope ethical studies concerining how engineerss, companies can recognize ethical issues in a networks of meanings , how they can make ethical decision among engineers and users.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

I hope to conduct cooperative research on ethical education of engineers, as well as on human-machine interaction.

Graduate School of Arts and Letters
NAOE, Kiyotaka, Professor PhD

[Scientific Simulation]

Supercomputing for enabling large-scale advanced simulations

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As modern supercomputers are getting larger and more complicated, it is not so easy to exploit their potential performance. It is necessary to develop a simulation code with considering various factors for both hardware and software reasons, and hence expert knowledge and experiences about supercomputing are often needed to achieve high actual performance. Our research interests focus on shaping future supercomputing systems and their applications, especially system software technologies for effectively using the future supercomputers. Also we are always exploring how to make good use of the state-of-the-art hardware and software technologies in order to enable unprecedented-scale and more advanced simulations.

From beginning (apply for use of our supercomputer) to end (get a solution), we can consistently support developing large-scale practical simulation, which is feasible only by using the supercomputer. As a supercomputing center, we have a long history of parallelizing and accelerating a lot of practical simulation programs. In addition, we are looking for research collaborators who are interested in streamlining and/or facilitating large-scale scientific software development.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Cyberscience Center
TAKIZAWA, Hiroyuki, Professor Doctor of Information Science

[Secret sharing]

Blockchain-based Approachs for High Secure P2P-type Decentralized Cloud Storage and Practical Smart Contract for Trading Personal Data

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We are developing a decentralized P2P (Peer to Peer) type cloud storage that realizes innovative level of security by use of surplus storages of P2P nodes with the Blockchain technology. The developed storage can avoid the risk of large-scale information leakage of stored data due to the weakness of the central server. By using our cryptographic currency for rewards and usage fees in the storage, fair storage usage of all users can also be achieved.
In addition, We are developing a unique smart contract technology for practical decentralized trading of personal data among an unspecified number of users.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We hope to conduct collaborative researches with companies developing Bitcoin 2.0 type application (e.g. smart contract, Fintech) based on the Blockchain technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Medical Database for practical use.

Center for Information Technology in Education
SAKAI, Masao, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering

[Seebeck effect]

Development of Potential Thermoelectric Materials

Features

We have been exploring novel thermoelectric materials. Functions of a solid substance primarily depend on the electronic structure, directly derived from its crystal structure. Through high-quality structure analyses using neutron and X-ray diffraction, combined with first-principles calculations, we have been fabricating materials with desired functions. To date, more than 40 novel materials have been discovered based on our guiding principles.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For developing future device technologies, challenges on thin-film thermionic multilayers and organic thermoelectric materials are currently underway.

Graduate School of Engineering
MIYAZAKI, Yuzuru, Professor Doctor of Engineering

 s

[satellite]

Satellite Monitoring for China's Pollution and Asian Dust Including PM2.5

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Kudoh Laboratory aims to construct an academic system of the Environmental Informatics and to make an unique study of earth environmental theme by using Information Technology. We have developed a three-dimensional histogram to analyze satellite images that consisted of a number of spectral data. And we extended to multi-dimensional method to obtain extraction reliable results of the aerosols such as air pollution and yellow sand. And also visualization for China's pollution and Asian dust including PM2.5 is now in progress.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

In areas that are affected by the serious air pollution, it enables an accurate judgment of the situation and prediction by using a combination of this research. I hope to cooperate with related companies, organizations and other.

Center for Northeast Asian Studies
KUDOH, Jun-ichi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[satellite cells]

Induction of skeletal muscle cells from human mesenchymal stem cells and their application to muscle degeneration

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Bone marrow stromal cells have great advantages since they are already applied to patients either by auto- or allo-transplantations, can be harvested in large numbers (10 million cells within several weeks) as adherent cells from bone marrow aspirates, and are with low risk of tumorigenesis. We have established a system to induce skeletal muscle cells from human bone marrow stromal cells by treating cells with cytokines followed by Notch intracellular domain gene plasmid introduction. This induction system successfully generates skeletal muscle lineage cells comprised of muscle stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as myoblasts and myotubes. Transplantation of satellite cells and myoblasts were effective for muscle regeneration (Science, 2005). Importantly, induced satellite cells integrated into satellite cell location and continuously contributed to muscle regeneration. Our research team is now pursuing the safety and efficiency of these induced cells by using canine muscle degeneration models. We hope to collaborate with companies and research groups who are willing to utilize our system.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Graduate School of Medicine
DEZAWA, Mari, Professor Doctor of Medicine

[scanning probe microscopy]

Biological Application of Scanning Probe Microscope

Features

We have invented a unique method to non-invasively evaluate the quality of individual mammalian embryos based on oxygen consumption. A Pt microelectrode was scanned near the single embryo sample to obtain oxygen concentration profile. Respiration activity of single embryo was estimated based on spherical diffusion theory. Further, it was found that the respiration activities of individual embryos corresponded the developmental potential of the embryos. Independently, we have developed a procedure of mRNA quantification from single-cell based on SPM featuring multi-functional probes. Next, we are going to combine the two methods mentioned above for quality control of mammalian embryos and embryonic stem cells.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

Our methods will be applied for assisted reprodictive technoloy (ART), pancreatic islet transplantation, or animal breeding.

Graduate School of Engineering
SHIKU, Hitoshi, Professor Doctor of Engineering

[scintillator crystals]

Development of Novel Scintillator and Piezoelectric Crystals

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Our research target is mainly focused on the topic of development of novel scintillator crystals, piezoelectric crystals, growth technology, characterization and its device application.
We design and synthesize new materials from a view point of Crystal Chemistry, and investigate their structure and physical properties. We also study on photo-detector, as suitable photo-detector fully contribute to get maximum signal from scintillator. This activity is very important to realize practical application of our developed materials. Recently, piezoelectric material and high melting temperature alloy project is also started.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

For the purpose of "real" contribution to human culture, we are always carrying out our research activity considering the industrial application. This point is unique feature of our attitude toward science.

Research Laboratory on Advanced Crystal Engineering, Institute for Materials Research
YOSHIKAWA, Akira, Professor Doctor of Science

[seaweed]

Development of disease-resistance animals by animal breeding method and dietary additive

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The most important disease in domestic and foreign pig industry is the pig respiratory disease complex (PRDC) that the pigs show the respiratory trouble by the infection of two or more pathogens. Pigs were selected for low direction of mycoplasma pneumonia (MPS) lesion for fifth generation in a joint research with Miyagi Prefecture Livestock Experiment Station. As a result, the lesion of MPS was decreased, a natural immunity (phagocyte activity; PA, the ratio of granular leukocyte to lymphocyte; GLR) and cellular immunity increased and SRBC specific antibody production (AP) was controlled. Dietary addition of seaweed and licorice enhanced the immune function in the peripheral blood and mucosa in swine. Furthermore, dietary addition of licorice induced the enhancement of mucosal immunity and anti-inflammation effect in the peripheral tissues. These naturally derived products are useful for the reduction of dietary addition of antibiotics in the pig industry. In addition, we selected for the natural immunity, the acquired immunity, and both of the mice during 20th generation, and the immunogenic property and disease resistance of these mice were investigating. We hope to conduct collaborative research with a willing company for a practical application of this technology in industry.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
SUZUKI, Keiichi, Professor Doctor of Agriculture

[secretion]

Development of Production System of Valuable Proteins Using a Koji-Mold, Aspergillus Oryzae, as a Host

Features

Because a koji-mold, Aspergillus oryzae, has an ability to secret a higher amount of proteins and is regarded as a safe microorganism, it has been expected as a promising host for production of useful proteins derived from plants and animals. However, Aspergillus oryzae produces various proteolytic enzymes that could degrade heterologous proteins produced, and hence we constructed mutant strains in which a transcription factor gene involved in proteolytic enzyme production was disrupted. In addition, codon optimization of heterologous gene resulted in a significant increase in the stability of heterologous gene transcripts. These attempts would lead to an increase in the amount of valuable proteins produced.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

The technology could be applied to the high-level production of pharmaceutical proteins and industrially useful enzymes. We look forward to developing the collaborative project with enzyme and pharmaceutical industries.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science
GOMI, Katsuya, Professor PhD

[security]

Blockchain-based Approachs for High Secure P2P-type Decentralized Cloud Storage and Practical Smart Contract for Trading Personal Data

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We are developing a decentralized P2P (Peer to Peer) type cloud storage that realizes innovative level of security by use of surplus storages of P2P nodes with the Blockchain technology. The developed storage can avoid the risk of large-scale information leakage of stored data due to the weakness of the central server. By using our cryptographic currency for rewards and usage fees in the storage, fair storage usage of all users can also be achieved.
In addition, We are developing a unique smart contract technology for practical decentralized trading of personal data among an unspecified number of users.

Targeted Application(s)/Industry

We hope to conduct collaborative researches with companies developing Bitcoin 2.0 type application (e.g. smart contract, Fintech) based on the Blockchain technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Medical Database for practical use.

Center for Information Technology in Education
SAKAI, Masao, Associate Professor Doctor of Engineering